"قبرص میں ترک فوجی مداخلت" کے نسخوں کے درمیان فرق

کوئی ترمیمی خلاصہ نہیں
{{Infobox military conflict
| image = Cyprus 1973 ethnic neutral.svg
| image_size = 335px|
| caption = Ethnic map of Cyprus in 1973. Gold denotes Greek Cypriots, purple denotes Turkish Cypriot enclaves and red denotes British bases.<ref>Map based on map from the CIA publication [https://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/atlas-issues-in-the-middle-east/author/central-intelligence-agency/ ''Atlas: Issues in the Middle East''], collected in [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/cyprus_ethnic_1973.jpg Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection] at the University of Texas Libraries web cite.</ref>
| conflict = Turkish invasion of Cyprus
| partof = the [[Cyprus dispute]]
| date = 20 July – 18 August 1974<br>({{Age in months, weeks and days|month1=7|day1=20|year1=1974|month2=08|day2=18|year2=1974}})
| place = [[قبرص]]
| territory = Turkey occupies 36.2% of Cyprus <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/embassies/embassy_brussels.nsf/geninfo_en/geninfo_en?OpenDocument|title=Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Brussels - General Information|website=www.mfa.gov.cy}}</ref><ref>Juliet Pearse, "Troubled Northern Cyprus fights to keep afloat" in Cyprus. Grapheio Typou kai Plērophoriōn, Cyprus. Grapheion Dēmosiōn Plērophoriōn, ''Foreign Press on Cyprus'', Public Information Office, 1979, [https://books.google.com/books?id=rHMsAQAAIAAJ&q=%22Turkish+military+victory+in+Cyprus+was+accompanied+by+bitter+economic+defeat%22&dq=%22Turkish+military+victory+in+Cyprus+was+accompanied+by+bitter+economic+defeat%22&hl=en&ei=B7X6TZ-_EIqevQOqvMm6Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA p. 15.]</ref><ref>Joseph Weatherby, ''The other world: Issues and Politics of the Developing World'', Longman, 2000, {{آئی ایس بی این|978-0-8013-3266-1}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=rDlnAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Turkish+military+victory+divided+the+island%22&dq=%22Turkish+military+victory+divided+the+island%22&hl=en&ei=KLT6TangE5C8uwPTpcmIAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA p. 285.]</ref><ref>David W. Ziegler, ''War, Peace, and International Politics'', Longman, 1997, {{آئی ایس بی این|978-0-673-52501-7}}, [https://archive.org/details/warpeaceinternat00zieg_2 <!-- quote="a clear-cut Turkish military victory". --> p. 275.]</ref><ref>Nils Ørvik, ''Semialignment and Western Security'', Taylor & Francis, 1986, {{آئی ایس بی این|978-0709919513}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=fJcOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA79&dq=%22will+not+be+changed+by+any+Turkish+military+victory%22&hl=en&ei=urb6TaCQDYeevgPd_9yLAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22will%20not%20be%20changed%20by%20any%20Turkish%20military%20victory%22&f=false p. 79.]</ref><ref>Richard D. Caplan, ''Europe and the Recognition of New States in Yugoslavia'', Cambridge University Press, 2005, {{آئی ایس بی این|978-0-521-82176-6}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=6HMxGC_Dcp0C&dq=%22Turkish+military+victory+in+1974+has+still+not+brought+recognition+of+the+Turkish+Republic+of+Northern+Cyprus%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s p. 104.], on the refusal of legal recognition of the Turkish Cypriot state, see S.K.N. Blay, [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AUYrBkIntLaw/1981/2.pdf "Self-Determination in Cyprus: The New Dimensions of an Old Conflict"], 10 ''Australian Yearbook of International Law'' (1987), pp. 67–100.</ref>
| result = Turkish victory<ref>{{cite book|last1=Fortna|first1=Virginia Page|title=Peace Time: Cease-fire Agreements and the Durability of Peace|date=2004|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=9780691115122|page=89|url=https://books.google.com/?id=7MXPOz95A_IC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref>
* Greek Junta in Cyprus collapses
*[[Greek military junta|Greek Junta]] in Greece collapses
*Formation of [[خود مختار ترک قبرصی انتظامیہ]]
*200,000<ref>{{cite book|last1=Tocci|first1=Nathalie|title=The EU and Conflict Resolution: Promoting Peace in the Backyard|date=2007|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781134123384|page=32|url=https://books.google.com/?id=aD-D5KusCkMC&pg=PA32#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Borowiec|first1=Andrew|title=Cyprus: A Troubled Island|date=2000|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=9780275965334|page=2|url=https://books.google.com/?id=hzEDg6-d80MC&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Michael|first1=Michális Stavrou|title=Resolving the Cyprus Conflict: Negotiating History|date=2011|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|isbn=9781137016270|page=130|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eWPJAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA130#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> [[یونانی قبرصی]] displaced.
*50,000<ref>[http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/euromosaic-iii-pbNC7406031/downloads/NC-74-06-031-EN-C/NC7406031ENC_002.pdf;pgid=y8dIS7GUWMdSR0EAIMEUUsWb0000Lsab9OuA;sid=SF0M7ZqZICYM_8sXXGqSSvi8BT4Sn51KTo4=?FileName=NC7406031ENC_002.pdf&SKU=NC7406031ENC_PDF&CatalogueNumber=NC-74-06-031-EN-C&ei=1gwnU7faJqnT0QWx54HgCw&usg=AFQjCNF6avQTP4kZ9l1_7FC2O0oDwS6ZTQ Katholieke Universiteit Brussel, 2004] "Euromosaic III: Presence of Regional and Minority Language Groups in the New Member States", p.18</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Smit|first1=Anneke|title=The Property Rights of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Beyond Restitution|date=2012|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9780415579605|page=51|url=https://books.google.com/?id=5XATV852SyIC&pg=PA51#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> [[ترک قبرصی]] displaced
| combatant1 = {{پرچم|Turkey|size=22px}}<br>{{پرچم تصویر|Turkey}} [[ترک قبرصی]] fighters
*[[ترک مزاحمت تشکیلات]]
| commander1 = '''{{پرچم تصویر|Turkey}} [[فخری کوروترک]]''' <br /> {{پرچم تصویر|Turkey}} [[بلند ایجوت]]<br />{{پرچم تصویر|Turkey}} [[نجم الدین اربکان]]<br />{{پرچم تصویر|Turkey}} '''[[رؤف دینک تاش]]'''
| combatant2 = {{پرچم|Greece|1970|size=22px}} <br>
{{پرچم تصویر|Cyprus}} [[قبرص]]
 
* {{Flagicon image|EOKA_flag.svg}} [[EOKA B]]
| commander2 = '''[[File:Flag of Cyprus.svg|22px|border]] [[نکوس سامپسون]]'''<br />[[File:Flag of Cyprus.svg|22px|border]] [[گلافکوس کلیریدیس]]<br />'''{{پرچم تصویر|Greece|1970}} [[Dimitrios Ioannidis]]'''<br />{{پرچم تصویر|Greece|1970}} [[Phaedon Gkizikis]]
| strength1 = '''Turkey:'''<br />40,000 troops<ref name=ulvikeser453>Keser, Ulvi (2006). ''Turkish-Greek Hurricane on Cyprus (1940 – 1950 – 1960 – 1970), 528. sayfa'', Publisher: Boğaziçi Yayınları, {{آئی ایس بی این|975-451-220-5}}.</ref><br />160–180 M47 and M48 tanks<ref>Η Μάχη της Κύπρου, Γεώργιος Σέργης, Εκδόσεις Αφοι Βλάσση, Αθήνα 1999, page 253 (in Greek)</ref><br>'''Turkish Cypriot enclaves:'''<br /> 11,000–13,500 men, up to 20,000 under full mobilisation<ref>Η Μάχη της Κύπρου, Γεώργιος Σέργης, Εκδόσεις Αφοι Βλάσση, Αθήνα 1999, page 254 (in Greek)</ref><br><br>'''Total: 60,000'''
| strength2 = '''Cyprus:'''<br />12,000 standing strength<ref>Η Μάχη της Κύπρου, Γεώργιος Σέργης, Εκδόσεις Αφοι Βλάσση, Αθήνα 1999, page 260 {{In lang|el}}</ref><br />'''Greece:'''<br />1,800–2,000 troops<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eldyk74.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13&Itemid=27|title=ΕΛ.ΔΥ.Κ '74 – Χρονικό Μαχών|author=Administrator|work=eldyk74.gr}}</ref><br><br>'''Total: 14,000
| casualties1 = 1,500–3,500 casualties (estimated) (military and civilian)<ref name="JentlesonPaterson1997"/><ref name="Jaques2007"/> including 573 [[لڑائی میں مقتول]] (503 [[ترکی مسلح افواج]], 70 [[ترک مزاحمت تشکیلات]]) <br>270 civilians killed<br>803 civilians missing (official number in 1974)<ref>Haydar Çakmak: ''Türk dış politikası, 1919–2008'', Platin, 2008, {{آئی ایس بی این|9944137251}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=_2UwAQAAIAAJ&q=%22Komutanl%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1+personeli+olmak+%C3%BCzere+toplam%22&dq=%22Komutanl%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1+personeli+olmak+%C3%BCzere+toplam%22&hl=de&sa=X&ei=clJoUZnIDqWg7AbmzYDoAw&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA page 688] {{In lang|tr}}; excerpt from reference: 415 [[Turkish Army|ground]], 65 [[Turkish Navy|navy]], 10 [[Turkish Air Force|air]], 13 [[Turkish Gendarmerie|gendarmerie]], 70 [[ترک مزاحمت تشکیلات]] (= 568 killed)</ref><br> 2,000 wounded<ref name="StudiesKeefe1980">{{cite book|author1=American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies|author2=Eugene K. Keefe|title=Cyprus, a country study|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=m_85te6NyCQC|accessdate=5 December 2012|year=1980|publisher=Foreign Area Studies, American University : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.|quote=Authoritative figures for casualties during the two- phased military operation were not published; available estimates listed Greek Cypriot losses at 6,000 dead and Turkish losses at 1,500 dead and 2,000 wounded... }}</ref><br><ref name="JentlesonPaterson1997">{{cite book|author1=Bruce W. Jentleson|author2=Thomas G. Paterson|author3=Council on Foreign Relations|title=Encyclopedia of US foreign relations|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f9opAQAAMAAJ|accessdate=5 December 2012|year=1997|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-511059-3|quote=Greek/Greek Cypriot casualties were estimated at 6,000 and Turkish/Turkish Cypriot casualties at 3,500, including 1,500 dead...}}</ref><ref name="Jaques2007">{{cite book|author=Tony Jaques|title=Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-First Century|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Dh6jydKXikoC&pg=PA556|accessdate=5 December 2012|year=2007|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-33538-9|pages=556|quote=The invasion cost about 6,000 Greek Cypriot and 1500-3.500 Turkish casualties (20 July 1974).}}</ref><ref name="WilsonDonnan2012">{{cite book|author1=Thomas M. Wilson|author2=Hastings Donnan|title=A Companion to Border Studies|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PeVi8_N-agIC&pg=PA44|accessdate=5 December 2012|date=19 June 2012|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4051-9893-6|page=44|quote=The partition of India was accompanied by a death toll variously credibly estimated at between 200,000 and 2 million. ... In the Turkish invasion and partition of Cyprus, 6,000 Greek Cypriots were killed and 2,000 reported missing, and some 1500 Turks and Turkish-Cypriots killed.}}</ref>
| casualties2 = 4,500–6,000 casualties (estimated) (military and civilian)<ref name="JentlesonPaterson1997"/><ref name="Jaques2007"/>
including 309 military deaths (Cyprus) 105 deaths (Greece) <ref name=mfac>{{cite web|script-title=el:Καταλόγοι Ελληνοκυπρίων και Ελλαδιτών φονευθέντων κατά το Πραξικόπημα και την Τουρκική Εισβολή|url=http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/8FA6CC01D244E364C22571B9002BDA0A?OpenDocument|publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus|accessdate=17 July 2015|language=Greek|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150416051359/http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/8FA6CC01D244E364C22571B9002BDA0A?OpenDocument|archivedate=16 April 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref><br>1000–1100 missing (as of 2015)<ref>{{cite web|title=Figures and Statistics of Missing Persons|url=http://www.cmp-cyprus.org/media/attachments/Quick%20Statistics/CMP_Facts_and_Figures_June_2015.pdf|publisher=Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus|accessdate=17 July 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150721051935/http://www.cmp-cyprus.org/media/attachments/Quick%20Statistics/CMP_Facts_and_Figures_June_2015.pdf|archivedate=21 July 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref><br>12,000 wounded<ref name="artuc2">Artuç, İbrahim; ''Kıbrıs'ta Savaş ve Barış'', Kastas Yayınları, İstanbul 1989, sayfalar 300-304 ve 317-318</ref><ref name="manizade511">Manizade, Derviş (1975). ''Kıbrıs: dün, bugün, yarın, 511. sayfa'', Yaylacik Matbaası.</ref><br /><br><br>
| casualties3 = 200,000 Greek Cypriots expelled from Northern Cyprus<br>50,000 Turkish Cypriots expelled from the Republic of Cyprus
{{پرچم تصویر|UN}} '''[[United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus|UNFICYP:]]'''<ref>UNFICYP report, found in Γεώργιος Τσουμής, ''Ενθυμήματα & Τεκμήρια Πληροφοριών της ΚΥΠ'', Δούρειος Ίππος, Athens November 2011, Appendix 19, page 290</ref><br> 9 killed <br> 65 wounded
| note =
}}
 
'''قبرص پر ترک حملہ''' <ref name="Morelli2011">{{حوالہ کتاب|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dyWwReoc81oC&pg=PA1|title=Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive|last=Vincent Morelli|date=April 2011|publisher=DIANE Publishing|isbn=978-1-4379-8040-0|page=1|quote=The Greek Cypriots and much of the international community refer to it as an "invasion.}}</ref> ( {{Lang-tr|Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı|lit=Cyprus peace operation}} &#x27; <span>قبرص امن آپریشن</span> &#x27; اور {{Lang-el|Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο}} ) ، کوڈ کا نام [[ترکی]] نے بطور '''آپریشن اتیلا''' ، <ref>Rongxing Guo, (2006), ''Territorial Disputes and Resource Management: A Global Handbook''. p. 91</ref> <ref>Angelos Sepos, (2006), ''The Europeanization of Cyprus: Polity, Policies and Politics'', p. 106</ref> ( {{Lang-tr|Atilla Harekâtı}} ) [[جزیرہ ملک|جزیرے ملک]] [[قبرص]] پر [[ترکی|ترک]] فوجی حملہ تھا۔ اس کا آغاز 20 جولائی 1974 کو 15 جولائی 1974 کو قبرصی بغاوت کے بعد ہوا تھا ۔ <ref>{{حوالہ کتاب|title=Identity and Turkish Foreign Policy: The Kemalist Influence in Cyprus and the Caucasus|last=Uzer|first=Umut|publisher=I.B. Tauris|year=2011|isbn=9781848855694|location=|pages=134–135}}</ref>
[[زمرہ:مضامین جن میں ترکی زبان کا متن شامل ہے]]