Subdivisions of the Quaternary Period
Quaternary Holocene Meghalayan 0 4,200
Northgrippian 4,200 8,200
Greenlandian 8,200 11,700
Pleistocene 'Upper' 11,700 129سال
Chibanian 129ka 774ka
Calabrian 774ka 1.80سال
Gelasian 1.80Ma 2.58Ma
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzian 2.58Ma 3.60Ma
Notes and references[1][2]
Subdivision of the Quaternary Period according to the ICS, as of January 2020.[1]

For the Holocene, dates are relative to the year 2000 (e.g. Greenlandian began 11,700 years before 2000). For the beginning of the Northgrippian a date of 8,236 years before 2000 has been set.[2] The Meghalayan has been set to begin 4,250 years before 2000.[1]

'Tarantian' is an informal, unofficial name proposed for a stage/age to replace the equally informal, unofficial 'Upper Pleistocene' subseries/subepoch.

In Europe and North America, the Holocene is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale. There are many regional subdivisions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; usually these represent locally recognized cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends with the cold Younger Dryas substage.

وسط حیاتی دور (انگریزی: Pleistocene) یا پلسٹوسینی دور؛ ان دو ادوار میں سے قدیم تر دور جس میں عصر چہارم شامل تھا، جس کی خصوصیات تلچھٹی اور برفانی اور رکازی باقیات ہیں جن میں قدیم زمانے کی انواع بھی شامل ہیں

مزید دیکھیےترميم

حوالہ جاتترميم

  1. ^ ا ب پ Cohen، K. M.؛ Finney، S. C.؛ Gibbard، P. L.؛ Fan، J.-X. (January 2020). "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 فروری 2020. 
  2. ^ ا ب Mike Walker؛ وغیرہ (December 2018). "Formal ratification of the subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period)" (PDF). Episodes. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS). 41 (4): 213–223. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2018/018016. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 11 نومبر 2019.  This proposal on behalf of the SQS has been approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and formally ratified by the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).