لیہی (انگریزی: Lehi) جسے اکثر اسٹرن گینگ (Stern Gang) کے نام سے جانا جاتا ہے،[2][3][4][5] یہ ایک صہیونی نیم فوجی تنظیم تھی جس کی بنیاد انتداب فلسطین میں ابرام اسٹرن ( Avraham Stern) نے رکھی تھی۔[6][7] اس کا منقول مقصد یہ تھا کہ برطانوی حکام کو فلسطینیوں سے جبری طور پر بے دخل کیا جائے، یہودیوں کی غیر منظم امیگریشن اور یہودی ریاست کے قیام کی اجازت دی جائے، جو ایک "نئی مطلق العنان عبرانی جمہوریہ" تھی۔ [8] اسے ابتدا میں اسرائیل میں قومی فوجی تنظیم کہا جاتا تھا، [9] اگست 1940 میں قائم ہونے کے بعد، لیکن ایک ماہ بعد اس کا نام لیہی رکھ دیا گیا۔[10] اس گروپ نے اپنے ممبروں کو دہشت گرد بتایا[11] اور دہشت گرد حملوں کا استعمال کرنے کا اعتراف کیا ہے۔[12][13][14]

لیہی


Lehi
Logo of the Lehi movement.svg
لیہی علامت[1]
فعال1940–1948
ملکیشیؤ، انتداب فلسطین
قسمصیہونی نیم فوجی
سبکدوشیMay 28 1948


حوالہ جاتترميم

  1. "סמל לח״י". 
  2. "This group was known to its friends as LEHI and to its enemies as the Stern Gang." Blumberg, Arnold. History of Israel, Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated, 1998. p 106.
  3. "calling themselves Lohamei Herut Yisrael (LHI) or, less generously, the Stern Gang." Lozowick, Yaacov. Right to Exist : A Moral Defense of Israel's Wars. Westminster, MD, USA: Doubleday Publishing, 2003. p 78.
  4. "It ended in a split with Stern leading his own group out of the Irgun. This was known pejoratively by the British as "the Stern Gang' – later as Lehi" Shindler, Colin. Triumph of Military Zionism : Nationalism and the Origins of the Israeli Right. London, GBR: I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2005. p 218.
  5. "Known by their Hebrew acronym as LEHI they were more familiar, not to say notorious, to the rest of the world as the Stern Gang – a ferociously effective and murderous terrorist group fighting to end British rule in Palestine and establish a Jewish state." Cesarani, David. Major Faran's Hat: Murder, Scandal and Britain's War Against Jewish Terrorism, 1945–1948. London. Vintage Books. 2010. p 01.
  6. "Definition of Stern Gang in English:". lexico.com. 
  7. "ELIAHU AMIKAM Stern Gang Leader" (Free Preview; full article requires payment.).واشنگٹن پوسٹ . 16 August 1995. pp. D5. Retrieved 18 November 2008. The [AMIKAM] Stern Gang – known in Hebrew as Lehi, an acronym for Israel Freedom Fighters – was the most militant of the pre-state underground groups.
  8. Shindler, Colin. (2005). The Triumph of Military Zionism : Nationalism and the Origins of the Israeli Right. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. صفحات I.B.Tauris, 2009 p.218:'Stern devotedly believed that 'the enemy of my enemy is my friend' so he approached Nazi Germany. With German armies at the gates of Palestine, he offered co–operation and an alliance with a new totalitarian Hebrew republic.'. ISBN 978-0-85771-754-2. OCLC 710975929. 
  9. Laqueur, Walter, 1921-2018. (2003). A history of Zionism. European Jewish Publications Society. (ایڈیشن 3rd ed). London: Tauris Parke. صفحات pp. 377. ISBN 978-0-85771-325-4. OCLC 842932838. 
  10. Nachman Ben-Yehuda. The Masada Myth: Collective Memory and Mythmaking in Israel. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1995. Pp. 322.
  11. Calder Walton (2008). "British Intelligence and the Mandate of Palestine: Threats to British national security immediately after the Second World War". Intelligence and National Security. 23 (4): 435–462. doi:10.1080/02684520802293049.
  12. He Khazit (underground publication of Lehi), Issue 2, August 1943. No author is stated, as was usual for this publication. Translated from original. For a discussion of this article, see Heller, p. 115
  13. Perliger، Arie؛ Eubank، William L. (2006). Middle Eastern Terrorism (بزبان انگریزی). Infobase Publishing. صفحات pp.37: "Lehi viewed acts of terrorism as legitimate tools in the realization of the vision of the Jewish nation and a necessary condition for national liberation.". ISBN 978-1-4381-0719-6. 
  14. Rosenfeld، Jean E. (2010-12-13). Terrorism, Identity, and Legitimacy: The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence (بزبان انگریزی). Routledge. صفحات pp.161 n.7:'Lehi ... was the last group to identify itself as a terrorist one'. ISBN 978-1-136-84867-4.