بھارت میں صدر راج (انگریزی: President's rule) کسی ریاستی حکومت کی معطلی اور براہ راست مرکزی حکومت کا نفاذ ہے۔

صدر راج کی فہرستترميم

ریاست تاریخ نفاذ تاریخ منسوخی مدت صدر راج نافذ کرنے کی وجہ
آندھرا پردیش [1] 18 January 1973 10 December 1973 327 دن Breakdown of law & order due to Jai Andhra Agitation, in نرسمہا راؤ's tenure.
آندھرا پردیش [2] 28 February 2014 8 June 2014 100 دن Political impasse following the resignation of Chief Minister Kiran Kumar Reddy and several other congress party legislators from the Government as well as the Party, in protest against Indian Parliament passing Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill to bifurcate united Andhra Pradesh and create a separate تلنگانہ state.[1] President's rule revoked from Telangana areas on 2 June 2014 and bifurcated Andhra Pradesh areas on 8 June 2014.[2] President rule reimposed unlawfully by the President after the two months time limit without taking approval of the Parliament under Article 356.[3][4]
Andhra State [1] 15 November 1954 29 March 1955 134 دن Loss of majority
اروناچل پردیش [1] 3 November 1979 18 January 1980 76 دن Loss of majority following defections in a fluid political environment during Janata party rule at the Centre.
اروناچل پردیش [2] 25 January 2016 19 February 2016 26 days 21 Congress MLAs joined hands with 11 of the BJP and two Independents, making the current government a minority government.[5] Supreme Court declared the imposition of president rule as ultra vires and reinstated the dismissed congress led government in the state. In a landmark judgement, it found fault with the unconstitutional role played by the Governor by interfering in the activities of legislatures and speaker of the Vidhan Shaba[6]
آسام [1] 12 December 1979 5 December 1980 359 دن 'Assam Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam started to take roots under the leadership of the All Assam Students’Union (AASU). The violence fuelled by United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) resulted in break down of law and order.
آسام [2] 30 June 1981 13 January 1982 197 دن Congress (I) government led by Anwara Taimur representing immigrant minorities collapsed following intensification of 'Assam Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam.
آسام [3] 19 March 1982 27 February 1983 345 دن Congress (I) government led by Kesab Gogoi representing ethnic Asom people collapsed following continued violence in Assam.
آسام [4] 28 November 1990 30 June 1991 214 دن Government dismissed in spite of AGP CM Prafulla Mahanta enjoying majority support in Assembly. The dismissal was triggered apparently by the threat to internal security due to banned organisation ULFA's activities. During the president's rule, Operation Bajrang was launched to flush out ULFA militants.
بہار (بھارت) [1] 29 June 1968 26 February 1969 242 دن Loss of majority following defections in a fluid political environment.
بہار (بھارت) [2] 4 July 1969 16 February 1970 227 دن Loss of majority following defections in a fluid political environment due to split in ruling Congress party
بہار (بھارت) [3] 9 January 1972 19 March 1972 70 دن Loss of majority following defections in a fluid political environment.
بہار (بھارت) [4] 30 April 1977 24 June 1977 55 دن Government dismissed in spite of Jagannath Mishra enjoying majority support in Assembly
بہار (بھارت) [5] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 112 دن Government dismissed in spite of Ram Sundar Das enjoying majority support in Assembly
بہار (بھارت) [6] 28 March 1995 5 April 1995 8 دن President's rule imposed for a brief period of one week to facilitate passage of vote on account (to permit day-to-day government expenses in Bihar) by Parliament while awaiting the results of Assembly elections held during the Chief Ministership of Laloo Prasad.
بہار (بھارت) [7] 12 February 1999 9 March 1999 25 دن Breakdown of law and order, killings of 11 Dalits at Narayanpur. The Vajpayee Government, revoked the president's rule within 26 days since the coalition did not have a majority in the Rajya Sabha.
بہار (بھارت) [8] 7 March 2005 24 November 2005 262 دن Indecisive outcome of elections. In a landmark judgement, Supreme Court ruled that the imposition of the president's rule without giving the chance to the elected legislatures to form new government is unconstitutional and بد نیتی act by the president.[7]
دہلی [1] 14 February 2014 11 February 2015 362 دن Arvind Kejriwal resigned as Chief Minister after failing to table the Jan Lokpal Bill in the Delhi Assembly.
گووا [1] 2 December 1966 5 April 1967 124 دن The Union Territory of Goa's Assembly was dissolved to conduct an opinion poll to determine whether Goa should be merged with Maharashtra.
گووا [2] 27 April 1979 16 January 1980 264 دن Loss of majority following split in the ruling MGP Party
گووا [3] 14 December 1990 25 January 1991 42 دن C.M. resigned consequent upon his disqualification by High Court – No other Government found viable
گووا [4] 9 February 1999 9 June 1999 120 دن Loss of majority and no alternate claimant to form next government
گووا [5] 4 March 2005 7 June 2005 95 دن Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Pratap Sinh Rane
گجرات (بھارت) [1] 12 May 1971 17 March 1972 310 دن Loss of majority following vertical split in Congress during 1969 presidential election
گجرات (بھارت) [2] 9 February 1974 18 June 1975 1 سال، 129 دن Chimanbhai Patel led Congress government resigned due to Navnirman Movement Anti-Corruption protests. The protesters forced MLA's resignations, forcing dissolution of assembly.
گجرات (بھارت) [3] 12 March 1976 24 December 1976 287 دن "Non-Passage" of budget leading to collapse of government
گجرات (بھارت) [4] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 112 دن Government dismissed in spite of Babubhai J Patel enjoying majority support in the Assembly
گجرات (بھارت) [5] 19 September 1996 23 October 1996 34 دن Government dismissed following a controversial confidence vote. The Assembly was placed in suspended animation, which led to subsequent installation of Vaghela government, supported by Congress
ہریانہ [1] 2 November 1967 22 May 1968 202 دن Government dismissed in spite of having a tenuous majority.
ہریانہ [2] 30 April 1977 21 June 1977 52 دن Government dismissed in spite of B D Gupta enjoying majority support in Assembly
ہریانہ [3] 6 April 1991 23 July 1991 108 دن Rebellion in the ruling party
ہماچل پردیش [1] 30 April 1977 22 June 1977 53 دن Government dismissed in spite of Thakur Ram Lal enjoying majority support in Assembly
ہماچل پردیش [2] 15 December 1992 3 December 1993 353 دن Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan in Uttar Pradesh.
جموں و کشمیر [1] 26 March 1977 9 July 1977 105 دن Sheikh Abdullah led National Conference government bowed out after being reduced to a minority following withdrawal of support by the Congress Party
جموں و کشمیر [2] 6 March 1986 7 November 1986 246 دن Loss of majority
جموں و کشمیر [3] 19 January 1990 9 October 1996 6 سال، 264 دن Insurgency and break down of law and order.
جموں و کشمیر [4] 18 October 2002 2 November 2002 15 دن Indecisive outcome of elections.
جموں و کشمیر [5] 11 July 2008 5 January 2009 178 دن Loss of majority following collapse of coalition. CM Gulam Nabi Azad's decision to transfer land for Amarnath pilgrimage led to PDP pulling out of coalation Govt.
جموں و کشمیر [6] 9 January 2015 1 March 2015 51 دن Failure of Government formation after fractured verdict in Assembly elections. BJP & PDP reached an understanding to form an alliance to form Government in J&K.[8]
جموں و کشمیر [7] 8 January 2016 4 April 2016 87 دن Death of chief minister مفتی محمد سعید
جموں و کشمیر [8] 19 June 2018 30 October 2019 2 سال، 52 دن Resignation of the Chief Minister following loss of coalition partner.[9] On 31 October 2019, Jammu and Kashmir state was split into two union territories, UT of Jammu and Kashmir and UT of Ladakh.
جموں و کشمیر (یونین علاقہ) [9(overall)] [1(in UT)] 31 October 2019 Present 284 دن To continue President's rule imposed on 19 June 2018 as Jammu and Kashmir state was split into two union territories, UT of Jammu and Kashmir and UT of Ladakh. It was imposed under section 73 of جموں و کشمیر تنظیم نو ایکٹ، 2019ء as Article 356 does not apply to Union Territories.
جھارکھنڈ [1] 19 January 2009 29 December 2009 344 دن Loss of majority
جھارکھنڈ [2] 1 June 2010 11 September 2010 102 دن Loss of majority
جھارکھنڈ [3] 18 January 2013 12 July 2013 175 دن Loss of majority BJP's ruling coalition partner JMM withdrew its support to the government pushing it into a minority. Chief Minister Arjun Munda resigned and sought dissolution of the state Assembly.[10]
کرناٹک [1] 19 March 1971 20 March 1972 1 سال، 1 دن Loss of majority
کرناٹک [2] 31 December 1977 28 February 1978 59 دن Government dismissed in spite of Congress CM Devraj Urs enjoying majority support in Assembly
کرناٹک [3] 21 April 1989 30 November 1989 223 دن Loss of majority of CM S. R. Bommai, followed by dissolution of Assembly. On an appeal by S. R. Bommai, in a landmark judgement delivered in 1994, the Indian Supreme Court laid out the procedure to be followed before dissolving an elected assembly. The historic ruling in this case reduced the scope for misuse of Article 356 by future central governments and governors.
کرناٹک [4] 10 October 1990 17 October 1990 7 دن Government of Veerendra Patil dismissed by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and state was placed under president's rule with the assembly placed in suspended animation until next chief Minister was elected
کرناٹک [5] 9 October 2007 11 November 2007 33 دن Loss of majority
کرناٹک [6] 20 November 2007 27 May 2008 189 دن Loss of majority
کیرلا [1] 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 دن Government dismissed in spite of Communist CM EMS Namboodiripad enjoying majority support in Assembly
کیرلا [2] 10 September 1964 6 March 1967 2 سال، 177 دن Loss of majority followed by indecisive outcome of elections
کیرلا [3] 1 August 1970 4 October 1970 64 دن Loss of majority
کیرلا [4] 1 December 1979 25 January 1980 55 دن Loss of majority
مدھیہ پردیش [1] 29 April 1977 25 June 1977 57 دن Government dismissed in spite of Shyama Charan Shukla enjoying majority support in Assembly
مدھیہ پردیش [2] 18 February 1980 8 June 1980 111 دن Government dismissed in spite of Sundar Lal Patwa enjoying majority support in Assembly
مدھیہ پردیش [3] 15 December 1992 7 December 1993 357 دن Govt. dismissed in the aftermath of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan destruction in Uttar Pradesh.
مہاراشٹر [1] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 112 دن Govt. dismissed in spite of Sharad Pawar enjoying majority support in the Assembly
مہاراشٹر [2] 28 September 2014 31 October 2014 33 دن Govt. dismissed since Congress Separated from its allies NCP and Others.
مہاراشٹر [3] 12 November 2019 23 November 2019 11 days No party could form a government after a fractured election verdict and Shiv Sena broke the pre-poll alliance it had with the BJP. See also: 2019 Maharashtra political crisis
منی پور [1] 12 January 1967 19 March 1967 66 دن First Elections to Manipur Union Territory Assembly held.
منی پور [2] 25 October 1967 18 February 1968 116 دن Short lived ministry collapsed following resignation of speaker, resulting in neither ruling nor opposition congress having a clear majority in the assembly. Assembly kept in suspended animation.
منی پور [3] 17 October 1969 22 March 1972 2 سال، 157 دن Violent secessionist insurgency and statehood demands resulted in breakdown of law and order
منی پور [4] 28 March 1973 3 March 1974 340 دن President's rule was imposed even though the opposition had a "tenuous" majority and could have formed a government
منی پور [5] 16 May 1977 28 June 1977 43 دن Collapse of Government following defections
منی پور [6] 14 November 1979 13 January 1980 60 دن Discontent within Janata Party Government and corruption charges led to dismissal of government and dissolution of Assembly.
منی پور [7] 28 February 1981 18 June 1981 110 دن Incumbent Government fell following defections. Governor did not permit an alternate government to be formed by People's Democratic Front on the basis of his assessment regarding stability of the proposed ministry.
منی پور [8] 7 January 1992 7 April 1992 91 دن Incumbent coalition Government fell following defections. president's rule imposed keeping assembly in suspension.
منی پور [9] 31 December 1993 13 December 1994 347 دن 1000 persons died in Naga-Kuki clashes and continued violence
منی پور [10] 2 June 2001 6 March 2002 277 دن Loss of majority
میگھالیہ [1] 11 October 1991 5 February 1992 117 دن The Centre imposed president's rule in Meghalaya in the wake of a political crisis after the then Speaker PR Kyndiah suspended five MLAs, mostly independents, on grounds of defection.[11]
میگھالیہ [2] 18 March 2009 12 May 2009 55 دن Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Donkupar Roy
میزورم [1] 11 May 1977 1 June 1978 1 سال، 21 دن Mizo Union Ministry led by Chief Minister Chhunga resigned in May 1977, ostensibly to facilitate the progress of peace talks. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, Page 95
میزورم [2] 10 November 1978 8 May 1979 179 دن Chief Minister Sailo's refusal to grant undue favours caused dissension in his party which led to the fall of his government and imposition of president's rule. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, pages 96–97
میزورم [3] 7 September 1988 24 January 1989 139 دن Defections reduced the Government to minority
ناگالینڈ [1] 20 March 1975 25 November 1977 2 سال، 250 دن Defections and counter defections led to imposition of president's rule
ناگالینڈ [2] 7 August 1988 25 January 1989 171 دن The state was under a brief spell of central rule again after the Hokishe Sema-led Congress government was reduced to a minority. The decision was challenged in the Supreme Court in held to be invalid in 1994.
ناگالینڈ [3] 2 April 1992 22 February 1993 326 دن Fluid party position and deteriorating law and order situation
ناگالینڈ [4] 3 January 2008 12 March 2008 69 دن Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Neiphiu Rio
اوڈیشا [1] 25 February 1961 23 June 1961 118 دن Harekrishna Mahtab led Congress-Gantantra Parishad Minority Government resigned on 21 February 1961 due to differences in the Congress Party. President's rule was imposed on 25 February 1961.
اوڈیشا [2] 11 January 1971 3 April 1971 82 دن Break-up of coalition
اوڈیشا [3] 3 March 1973 6 March 1974 1 سال، 3 دن Facing imminent collapse of government, incumbent chief minister recommended dissolution of assembly and fresh elections.
اوڈیشا [4] 16 December 1976 29 December 1976 13 دن Chief Minister Nandini Satpathy was forced out and assembly placed under suspended animation. A new Congress government was sworn in after revocation of president's rule.
اوڈیشا [5] 30 April 1977 26 June 1977 57 دن Government dismissed in spite of Binayak Acharya enjoying majority support in Assembly
اوڈیشا [6] 17 February 1980 9 June 1980 113 دن Government dismissed in spite of Nilamani Routray enjoying majority support in Assembly
Patiala and East Punjab States Union [1] 5 March 1953 8 March 1954 1 سال، 3 دن President's rule was invoked in the erstwhile PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab States Union ) State when the Akali Dal government, led by Gian Singh Rarewala, was dismissed
پانڈچیری [1] 18 September 1968 17 March 1969 180 دن Assembly was dissolved and president's rule imposed as opposition parties had a chance to form a government after the fall of the Congress government.
پانڈچیری [2] 3 January 1974 6 March 1974 62 دن Assembly dissolved after fall of DMK government following decision of two ministers to join newly formed ADMK.
پانڈچیری [3] 28 March 1974 2 July 1977 3 سال، 96 دن Fall of coalition government of ADMK, Congress(O)following division of votes by Congress(R) and DMK. The Assembly was dissolved.
پانڈچیری [4] 12 November 1978 16 January 1980 1 سال، 65 دن Fall of government due to political instability
پانڈچیری [5] 24 June 1983 16 March 1985 1 سال، 265 دن Government dismissed following withdrawal of Congress(I) from coalition government. In spite of incumbent chief minister asking for an opportunity to prove his majority on the floor of the house, the assembly was dissolved.
پانڈچیری [6] 4 March 1991 3 July 1991 121 دن DMK Government dismissed in spite of having a majority in the Assembly
پنجاب، بھارت [1] 20 June 1951 17 April 1952 302 دن Pandit Nehru kept the Punjab Assembly in suspension for nine months and 28 days to help the state Congress government get its act together.
پنجاب، بھارت [2] 5 July 1966 1 November 1966 119 دن State administration was taken over, ostensibly to facilitate bifurcation of Punjab state into two, Punjab and Haryana
پنجاب، بھارت [3] 23 August 1968 17 February 1969 178 دن Break-up of coalition
پنجاب، بھارت [4] 14 June 1971 17 March 1972 277 دن Following poor performance in March, 1971 Lok Sabha Elections, incumbent Chief Minister advised dissolving state assembly and holding fresh elections to state legislature.
پنجاب، بھارت [5] 30 April 1977 20 June 1977 51 دن Government dismissed in spite of Giani Zail Singh enjoying majority support in Assembly
پنجاب، بھارت [6] 17 February 1980 6 June 1980 110 دن Government dismissed in spite of Parkash Singh Badal enjoying majority support in Assembly
پنجاب، بھارت [7] 10 October 1983 29 September 1985 1 سال، 354 دن Insurgency and breakdown of law and order
پنجاب، بھارت [8] 11 May 1987 25 February 1992 4 سال، 259 دن Insurgency and breakdown of law and order
راجستھان [1] 13 March 1967 26 April 1967 44 دن Indecisive outcome of elections
راجستھان [2] 29 April 1977 22 June 1977 54 دن Government dismissed in spite of Hari Dev Joshi enjoying majority support in Assembly
راجستھان [3] 16 February 1980 6 June 1980 111 دن Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly
راجستھان [4] 15 December 1992 4 December 1993 354 دن Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly
سکم [1] 18 August 1978 18 October 1979 1 سال، 61 دن Loss of majority following split in Kazi Lhendup Dorji led Janata Party government. The central government imposed president's rule and followed up with electoral reforms before ordering fresh elections.
سکم [2] 25 May 1984 8 March 1985 287 دن Congress Government formed following induced collapse of Nar Bahadur Bandari Sikkim Janata Parishad Government was dismissed as it did not enjoy a majority in the Assembly.
تمل ناڈو [1] 5 January 1971 14 March 1971 68 دن Government dismissed in spite of Chief minister ایم کروناندھی enjoying majority support in Assembly, as per request of the Chief minister to prepone elections.
تمل ناڈو [2] 1 February 1976 29 June 1977 1 سال، 148 دن Government dismissed in spite of Chief minister ایم کروناندھی enjoying majority support in Assembly, due to the Government not strictly enforcing provisions of Emergency rules.
تمل ناڈو [3] 18 February 1980 8 June 1980 111 دن Government dismissed in spite of Chief minister M G Ramachandran enjoying majority support in Assembly, due to Farmers Strike for subsidised electricity.
تمل ناڈو [4] 31 January 1988 26 January 1989 361 دن Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Janaki Ramachandran, after death of Chief minister M G Ramachandran.
تمل ناڈو [5] 31 January 1991 23 June 1991 143 دن Government headed by M. Karunanidhi dismissed by Prime Minister Chandrashekhar on charges of supporting anti-national activities, in spite of the then Governor Barnala's report and enjoying majority support in the Assembly.[12]
Travancore-Cochin [1] 23 March 1956 5 April 1957 1 سال، 13 دن Loss of majority following split in Congress Party
تریپورہ [1] 1 November 1971 20 March 1972 140 دن In the backdrop of refugee influx due to Bangladesh Liberation War, split in the Congress and Communist agitation for Tripura to become a full-fledged state, president's rule was imposed. On 1 January 1972 Tripura became a State and assembly elections held subsequently.
تریپورہ [2] 5 November 1977 5 January 1978 61 دن Collapse of short lived government in a fluid political environment
تریپورہ [3] 11 March 1993 10 April 1993 30 دن Elections postponed from 15 February 1993 to 3 April 1993 on account of deteriorating law and order situation. Caretaker CM resigns.
اتر پردیش [1] 25 February 1968 26 February 1969 1 سال، 1 دن Loss of majority following withdrawal of support by Congress (R) led by Indira Gandhi.
اتر پردیش [2] 1 October 1970 18 October 1970 17 دن Charan Singh Ministry supported by Congress collapsed following split in Congress party.
اتر پردیش [3] 13 June 1973 8 November 1973 148 دن Chief Minister resigned as a result of the 1973 Provincial Armed Constabulary revolt.
اتر پردیش [4] 30 November 1975 21 January 1976 52 دن Congress Government of H N Bahuguna tendered resignation due to infighting within the party.
اتر پردیش [5] 30 April 1977 23 June 1977 54 دن Government dismissed in spite of N D Tiwari enjoying majority support in Assembly.
اتر پردیش [6] 17 February 1980 9 June 1980 113 دن Government dismissed in spite of Banarasi Das enjoying majority support in Assembly.
اتر پردیش [7] 6 December 1992 4 December 1993 363 دن Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan.
اتر پردیش [8] 18 October 1995 21 March 1997 1 سال، 154 دن Loss of majority following collapse of coalition followed by indecisive outcome of fresh elections.
اتر پردیش [9] 8 March 2002 3 May 2002 56 دن Indecisive outcome of elections.
اتراکھنڈ [1] 27 March 2016 21 April 2016 25 دن Collapse of CM Harish Rawat's ministry following a split in the state unit of Congress party. In the hearing of related case, Uttarakhand High Court declared the president's rule imposition by the President unconstitutional and restored the Harish Rawat's led government in the state.[13]
اتراکھنڈ [2] 22 April 2016 11 May 2016 19 دن Supreme Court of India held the stay on Uttarakhand High Court's verdict thus reinstating the president's rule in the state.
Vindhya Pradesh [1] 8 April 1949 13 March 1952 2 سال، 340 دن President's rule was imposed in the erstwhile Vindya Pradesh State when Chief Minister resigned. president's rule was revoked following independent India's first general elections.
مغربی بنگال [1] 1 July 1962 8 July 1962 7 دن Interim Period between death of incumbent Chief Minister and election of new leader.
مغربی بنگال [2] 20 February 1968 25 February 1969 1 سال، 5 دن State placed under president's rule following collapse of two successive short lived coalition governments.
مغربی بنگال [3] 19 March 1970 2 April 1971 1 سال، 14 دن Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)
مغربی بنگال [4] 28 June 1971 19 March 1972 265 دن Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)

حوالہ جاتترميم

  1. "President's Rule imposed in Andhra Pradesh under Article 356 of Constitution". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 فروری 2014. 
  2. "Andhra Pradesh mired in President rule imbroglio". The Times of India. 19 April 2014. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 ستمبر 2014. 
  3. "Re-proclamation of President rule in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). 2014. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 17 اگست 2014. 
  4. "Andhra Pradesh mired in President rule imbroglio". The Times Of India. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 ستمبر 2014. 
  5. "It's against Constitution: Politicians react to Prez rule in Arunachal". Hindustan Times. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 جنوری 2016. 
  6. "After Arunachal Pradesh debacle, PM Modi must abolish post of governor". اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 جولا‎ئی 2016. 
  7. "Rameshwar Prasad And Ors vs Union Of India And Anr on 24 January, 2006". اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 02 جولا‎ئی 2015. 
  8. Kumar، Vinay (9 January 2015). "Governor's rule in J&K". اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 05 اپریل 2018 – www.thehindu.com سے. 
  9. "Mehbooba Mufti resigns after BJP pulls out of alliance with PDP in Jammu and Kashmir – Times of India ►". The Times of India. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 جون 2018. 
  10. PTI (18 January 2013). "Jharkhand put under President's rule again". Hindustan Times. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جنوری 2013. 
  11. "Meghalaya clamped under President's Rule". www.merinews.com. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 05 اپریل 2018. 
  12. "Congress had no role in dismissing DMK govt in 1991". The Hindu. 14 April 2016. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ June 25, 2016. 
  13. "Lessons from Uttarakhand and Arunachal: What court orders on Central rule say". اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 جولا‎ئی 2016.