فہرست نسل کشی بلحاظ اموات

فہرست نسل کشی بلحاظ اموات (انگریزی: List of genocides by death toll) میں وہ تمام اموات کے تخمینے شامل ہیں جو نسل کشی کی وجہ بنے۔ اس میں دوسرے کئی طرح کے قتل عام جیسے جنگی جرائم مثلاً سرخ دہشت، جنگ تیس سالہ، آگے کی جانب ایک عظیم پھلانگ اور عظيم دہشت شامل نہیں ہیں۔

نسل کشیوں کی فہرستترميم

ایونٹ مقام سے(فرام) تک (ٹو) کم سے کم
تخمینہ
زیادہ سے زیادہ
تخمینہ
ہلاک ہونے والے گروپ کا تناسب
مرگ انبوہ[N 1]   جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1941 1945 5,750,000
[2]
6,000,000
[3]
&10000000000000025000000Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe۔[4]
Generalplan Ost[N 1] 4,500,000
[5]
13,700,000
[6]
دوسری جنگ عظیم میں ہلاکتیں The Third Reich planned to artificially decrease Baltic and Slavic populations by tens of millions, mostly by starvation, during and after the war.

Deaths include 1.3 million Jews, which are included in the deaths of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust,[3] as well as the deaths of more than 3 million Soviet POWs.[3]

Holodomor (Голодомор)[N 2]
(Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
  سوویت اتحاد (  یوکرینی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1932 1933 1,800,000
[18][19]
7,500,000
[20][21]
&10000000000000012000000 نسل کشی of یوکرینی through artificial starvation by the Soviet regime.[22][23] Its characterization as a genocide is debated amongst historians.[24][25][26]
Nazi genocide of Poles[N 1]   جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1939 1945 1,800,000
[3]
3,000,000
[27]
دوسری جنگ عظیم میں ہلاکتیں
Mongol conquest of Western Xia[N 3]   Mongol-dominated مغربی شیا 1205 1227 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 killed in the نسل کشی after the conquest (Half[33] the مغربی شیا[34][35][36] was exterminated)
Cambodian genocide[N 4]   Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
[45][46]
3,000,000
[40][47]
15–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[48][49] including:

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N 5]
  سوویت اتحاد (  قازق خود مختار سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1931 1933 1,300,000
[50]
1,750,000
[51]
&10000000000000012000000Some historians conclude that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[51] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[52]
Genocide in بنگلہ دیش[N 6] by پاکستان
  مشرقی پاکستان (territories of present-day   بنگلادیش) 1971 300,000
[54]
3,000,000
[55][56]
&100000000000000030000002%[57] to 4%[58][59][60] Over 20% of بنگلہ دیش میں ہندومت killed[61]
(Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
ارمنی قتل عام Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N 7]   سلطنت عثمانیہ
(territories of present-day ترکی، سوریہ and عراق)
1915 1922 700,000
[62]
1,800,000
[63]
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[62]
Indonesian genocide[N 8]   انڈونیشیا 1965 1966 500,000
[74][70][71]
3,000,000
[72][73]
Some scholars now argue that the Indonesian massacres constitute genocide by the legal definition.[75][65][69][76][77]
روانڈیائی نسل کشی[N 9]   روانڈا 1994 500,000
[78]
1,071,000
[79]
&1000000000000004000000070% of Tutsi in Rwanda killed and 30% of Twa in Rwanda killed
20% of Rwanda's total population killed
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 10]   سلطنت عثمانیہ
(territories of present-day ترکی)
1914 1922 500,000
[80]
900,000
[81]
At least 25% of Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) killed
Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N 11] چنگ خاندان (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
[85]
600,000
[85]
&1000000000000008000000080% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
چیرکسی نسل کشی[N 12]   چیرکاسیا، قفقاز 1864 1867 400,000
[98]
1,500,000
۔[99]
&1000000000000004500000090% to 97% of total ادیگی قوم population perished or deported by the Russian forces.[100][101][102]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 13]   Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day کرویئشا، بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا and سریم ضلع) 1941 1945 320,000
[104][105]
600,000
[104][105][106]
&1000000000000001900000013% to 21% of the Serbian population within the NDH was killed.[57]
Pacification of Algeria[N 14]   فرانسیسی الجزائر

1830

1871

300,000
[115]

1,000,000
[116]

&1000000000000001500000010%[117] to 1/3[118][116] of Algeria's population died during the period
Genocide of Nestorian christians (کلیسیائے مشرق) by امیر تیمور   Timurid-controlled مشرق وسطی

1370

1405

Tens of thousands

Hundreds of thousands

Tamerlane's rule was characterized by numerous massacres, including against other Muslims, but the only community he systematically targeted for elimination was the local Christians.
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil[N 15]   برازیل

1900

1985

235,000
[125]
800,000
[126]
&1000000000000008000000087 out of 230 Brazilian tribes went extinct during the period[127]
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)[N 16]
  لانگویڈوک، قرون وسطی میں فرانس 1209 1229 200,000
[130]
1,000,000
[131]
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 17]   سلطنت عثمانیہ

territories of present-day ترکی، سوریہ and عراق)

1915 1923 200,000
[132]
750,000
[133]
&10000000000000075000000
Irish genocide[N 18]   جزیرہ آئرلینڈ، انگلستان کی دولت مشترکہ 1649 1653 200,000
[137]
618,000
[138]
&1000000000000003000000020–40% of the population of Ireland perished during the Cromwellian conquest[137][138]
Wu Hu genocide[N 19] شمالی اور جنوبی چین 350 351 200,000
[140]
200,000 &10000000000000025000000
Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War[N 20]   زائر 1996 1997 200,000
[143]
232,000
[144]
حمیدیہ قتل عام[N 21]   سلطنت عثمانیہ 1894 1896 200,000
[151]
300,000
[151]
Genocide of the Tencteri and Usipetes[N 22] Germania 55 BC 150,000
[156]
430,000
[157]
&10000000000000025000000
Battle of Carthage
(Punic genocide)
[N 23]
قرطاجنہ (territories of present-day تونس شہر، تونس) 146 BC 150,000
[163][158]
150,000 Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[163]
Romani genocide[N 24]   جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1935[168] 1945 130,000
[169]
500,000
[170][171]
&1000000000000002500000025% of رومینی in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 25]   سوویت اتحاد 1937 1938 111,091
[181]
250,000
[182]
&1000000000000001300000022% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[183]
چیچن اور انگوشوں کی جلاوطنی[N 26]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
  سوویت اتحاد (شمالی قفقاز) 1944 1948 100,000
[190]
400,000
[191]
&1000000000000003500000023.5% to almost 50% of total چیچن قوم population killed[192]

[184][صفحہ درکار][185][186][193]

Genocide of Acholi and Lango people under عیدی امین[N 27]   یوگنڈا 1972 1978 100,000
[194]
300,000
[194]
Darfur genocide[N 28]   دارفور، سوڈان

2003

Present

98,000
[197]
500,000
[198]
Kurdish genocide[N 29]   Iraq 1977 1991 87,500
[حوالہ درکار]
388,100
[حوالہ درکار]
&10000000000000008000000
East Timor genocide[N 30]   East Timor، انڈونیشیا 1975 1999 85,320
[218]
196,720
[219]
&1000000000000002000000013% to 44% of مشرقی تیمور's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Ikiza[N 31]   برونڈی 1972 80,000
[220][221]
300,000
[222]
&10000000000000005000000 As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[222]
Libyan genocide[N 32]   اطالوی لیبیا 1923 1932 80,000
[227]
125,000
[234]
25% of برقہ population killed[227]
Bambuti genocide[N 33]   شمالی کیوو، جمہوری جمہوریہ کانگو 2002 2003 60,000
[237][235]
70,000
[237]
&1000000000000004000000040% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 34]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[N 35]   German-occupied Poland 1943 1945 50,000
[240]
300,000
[241][242][243][244][245]
4% to 20% of the pre-war (1931) Second Polish Republic's total Polish population of Voivodeships: stanisławowskie، tarnopolskie and wołyńskie[246][247] where killed.
Genocide of Isaaqs[N 36]   صومالی جمہوری جمہوریہ 1988 1991 50,000
[263][253]
200,000
[264]
&10000000000000004000000
'Genocidal crimes against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N 37]   Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day کرویئشا، بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا، and Sandžak) 1941 1945 47,000
[268]
65,000
[268]
Tamil Genocide[N 38]   Tamil Eelam، سری لنکا 1956 2009 40,000[272][273] 140,000+[274] Between 10% and 35% of the Eelam Tamil population living in the de facto state of Tamil Eelam، controlled by the تامل ٹائیگرز۔[275]
کریمیائی تاتاریوں کی جبری ملک بدری[N 39]   سوویت اتحاد (  کریمیائی خود مختار سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1944 1948 34,000
[280]
195,471
[281]
&10000000000000032000000The deportation and following exile reduced the کریمیائی تاتار population by between 18%[280] and 46%۔[282]
Genocide in German South West Africa[N 40]   جرمن جنوب مغربی افریقہ 1904 1908 34,000
[283]
110,000
[284][285]
&1000000000000007000000060% (24,000 out of 40,000[283]) to 81.25% (65,000[286][287] out of 80,000[288]) of total Herero and 50%[283] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N 41]   گواتیمالا 1962 1996 32,632
[293]
166,000
[294]
&1000000000000004000000040% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[57]
Jewish genocide during the Russian White Terror[N 42] what is now یوکرین and روس 1918 1923 30,000
[296][297]
250,000
[295]
&10000000000000002000000
1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis[N 31]   برونڈی 1993 25,000
[299]
50,000
[300]
Genocide of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Cossack insurgents[N 43]   Zaporozhian Cossacks insurgents on territory of پولینڈ-لتھوانیا دولت مشترکہ، یوکرین and بیلاروس 1648 1657 18,000
[302]
100,000
[303][304][305][306][307]
&1000000000000005000000045–50% of the Jewish population of یوکرین was killed.[302]
Latvian Operation of the NKVD
(Latvian genocide)[N 44]
  سوویت اتحاد 1937 1938 16,573
[308]
16,573
[309]
1984ء کے سکھ مخالف فسادات & Operation Woodrose[N 45]   پنجاب، بھارت، بھارت 1984 1990 15,350
[N 46]
29,000
[N 46]
Parsley massacre[N 47]   جمہوریہ ڈومینیکن 1937 12,168
[329]
35,000
[329]
California Genocide[N 48]   کیلیفورنیا، ریاست ہائے متحدہ

1846

1873

9,492–16,094
[330][331][334]

120,000
[331][335]

&10000000000000080000000سرخ ہندی population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 49]   Queensland، آسٹریلیا

1840

1897

10,000
[340]
65,180
[341]
&100000000000000300000003.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[340] to 65,180[341] killed out of 125,600)[توضیح درکار]
Rohingya genocide[N 50]   میانمار

2017

Present

9,000–13,700
[348]

43,000
[349]

Decossackization[N 51]   سوویت اتحاد

1917

1933

&10000000000010000000000thousands–10,000+
[357]

1,000,000
[358]

&10000000000000004000000
Bosnian genocide[N 52]   بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا 1992 1995 8,373
[363]
31,10739,199
[364][365]
&10000000000000003000000More than 3% of the بوسنیائی مسلم population of بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا perished during the بوسنیائی جنگ۔[366]
Persecution of the Igbo by the Nigerian army[N 53]   نائیجیریا 1966 1966 8,000[368] 30,000[369]
The Sook Ching[N 54]   سنگاپور and   British Malaya 1942 1942 5,000
[حوالہ درکار]
25,000
[حوالہ درکار]
Chittagong Hill Tracts genocide[N 55]   Chittagong Hill Tracts، بنگلہ دیش 1977 1997 4,406
[379]
13,206
[379]
&10000000000000002000000
1804 Haiti massacre[N 56]   ہیٹی 1804 1804 3,000[382] 5,000[382]
Selk'nam genocide[N 57]   چلی، Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
[383]
3,900
[384]
&1000000000000008400000084%
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.)[384][385]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 58]   داعش-controlled territory in northern عراق and سوریہ 2014 2019 2,100–4,400
[388]
10,000
[389]
See also: 2007 Yazidi communities bombings
Genocide of Shia muslims by ISIL، including نصیریہ and دروز   داعش-controlled territory in northern عراق and سوریہ and in افغانستان against the ہزارہ لوگ people. 2003 (as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad and successor organizations including داعش) Present (as sleeper cells) Several tens of thousands 100,000+
The Gukurahundi[N 59]   زمبابوے 1983 1987 2,000
[391]
30,000
[392]
1572 massacres of French Huguenots[N 60]   فرانس 1572 1572 2,000
[حوالہ درکار]
70,000
[395]
Genocide of the Moriori[N 61]   جزائر چیٹم علاقہ، نیوزی لینڈ 1835 1863 1,900
[397][398]
1,900 &1000000000000009500000095% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki، a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe۔[399][400] All were enslaved and many were آدم خوری۔[401] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[402] The Moriori language is now extinct.[396][403] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[398]
Conquest of the Desert and Mapuche decline[N 62]   پیٹاگونیا، modern day ارجنٹائن

1870s

1884

1,313
[404]
225,000
[405]
&10000000000000090000000Mapuche population reduced from 250,000 to 25,000.[405]
Genocide of Christians by ISIL   داعش-controlled territory in عراق، لیبیا and سوریہ 2003 (as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad and successor organizations including داعش Present (elsewhere in the world, as ISIL has lost all territory) 1000+ Thousands More than 2,000 native Christians killed in the territories controlled by ISIL or with sleeper cells, including the 2010 Baghdad church massacre، 2015 kidnapping and beheading of Copts in Libya، the 2017 Palm Sunday church bombings، the 2019 Jolo Cathedral bombings and the سری لنکا دھماکے، 2019ء، among others. See also: Boko Haram insurgency
Destruction of the Aché[N 63]   پیراگوئے 1956 Early 1970s 900
[407]
4,000
[408]
85% of the آچی were wiped out (Today Aché are considered extinct)۔
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 64]
  Van Diemen's Land، آسٹریلیا Mid 1820s 1832 400
[411]
1,000
[411]
Uyghur genocide
(Genocide of اویغور)
  سنکیانگ، چین 2014 Present 386 1,500,000
Missing and murdered Indigenous women

(Widespread murders of Indigenous peoples in Canada)

  کینیڈا 1980s Present 1,200+

نگارخانہترميم

Holodomor کے فاقہ زدہ شکار 
Cambodian genocide کے مقتولین کی کھوپڑیاں 
ارمنی قتل عام کے شکار 
Greek genocide کے شکار 
Guatemalan genocide کے شکار 
Bosnian genocide کی لاشیں 
Anfal genocide قبریں 
Cathar genocide تصویریں 
Darfur genocide کے دوران ماں اپنے بیمار بچے کے ساتھ 
2014ء میں Isaaq genocide کی قبریں / لاشیں 
Herero and Namaqua genocide کے دوران میں طبی تجربات کے لیے سر 
Libyan Genocide میں ایک مرکز 
میانمار میں Rohingya genocide روہنگیا مسلمان ایک مہاجر کیمپ میں۔ 

مزید دیکھیےترميم

حوالہ جاتترميم

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  21. Mote، Frederick W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. صفحات 256–257. ISBN 0-674-01212-7. 
  22. Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. صفحات 256–7. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7. 
  23. "Doeke Eisma". Chinggis Qan and the Conquest of Eurasia: A Biography. صفحہ 100. 
  24. Kuhn، Dieter (2011-10-15). The Age of Confucian Rule: The Song Transformation of China. صفحہ 50. ISBN 978-0-674-06202-3. 
  25. Bowman، Rocco (2014). "Bounded Empires: Ecological and Geographic Implications in Sino- Tangut Relations, 960- 1127". The Undergraduate Historical Journal at UC Merced 2: 11. doi:ڈی او ئي. https://escholarship.org/content/qt96h3q8fx/qt96h3q8fx.pdf. 
  26. McGrath، Michael C. Frustrated Empires: The Song-Tangut Xia War of 1038–44 (ایڈیشن 150-190.). In Wyatt. صفحہ 153. 
  27. ^ ا ب
  28. "Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam)". www.d.dccam.org. 18 اگست 2018 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 ستمبر 2020. 
  29. "Welcome | Genocide Studies Program". gsp.yale.edu. 
  30. Snyder، Timothy (2012). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Hachette UK. صفحہ 90. ISBN 978-0-465-03297-6. 
  31. ^ ا ب John Arch Getty, Roberta Thompson Manning، ویکی نویس (1993). Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. صفحہ 265. ISBN 978-0-521-44670-9. 
  32. European Society for Central Asian Studies (2004). ویکی نویس: Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig. Central Asia on Display: Proceedings of the VIIth Conference of the European Society for Central Asian Studies. LIT Verlag Münster. صفحہ 236. ISBN 978-3-8258-8309-6. 
  33. Dummett، Mark (2011-12-16). "How one newspaper report changed world history". BBC News (بزبان انگریزی). اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 04 اگست 2020. 
  34. ^ ا ب پ "GENOCIDES from 1915 to 2006". 14 اپریل 2019 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  35. Quoting from "بنگلہ دیش Genocide Archive". 08 مارچ 2010 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 31 اکتوبر 2016.  :[بہتر ماخذ درکار]
  36. R.J. Rummel (جنوری 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. صفحہ 331. ISBN 1-56000-927-6. The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in بنگلہ دیش newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. … The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in پاکستان overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East پاکستان۔ If the rate of killing for all of پاکستان is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (مارچ 1969 to دسمبر 1971)، then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II)۔ 
  37. 1 in 25 is equal to 4% of بنگلہ دیش's total population killed
  38. Koenraad Elst. Was There an Islamic "Genocide of Hindus?". doi:ڈی او ئي. "2 million deaths out of 9.5 million Hindus". 
  39. ^ ا ب Ginsborg، Paul (2014). Family Politics: Domestic Life, Devastation and Survival, 1900–1950. Yale University Press. صفحہ 100. ISBN 978-0-300-21105-4. 
  40. Robert Cribb (2004). ویکی نویس: Samuel Totten. The Indonesian Genocide of 1965–1966. Teaching about Genocide: Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing. صفحات 133–143. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. 
  41. ^ ا ب Melvin، Jess (2017). "Mechanics of Mass Murder: A Case for Understanding the Indonesian Killings as Genocide". Journal of Genocide Research 19 (4): 487–511. doi:10.1080/14623528.2017.1393942. 
  42. ^ ا ب Robinson، Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66. مطبع جامعہ پرنسٹن. ISBN 978-1-4008-8886-3. 
  43. Roosa، John. "The 1965–66 Politicide in Indonesia: Toward Knowing Who Did What to Whom and Why". Stanford. 
  44. "The Indonesian Politicide of 1965–66: How Could it Have Happened?". Maastricht University. 
  45. ^ ا ب Melvin، Jess (2018). The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder. روٹلیج. صفحہ 1. ISBN 978-1-138-57469-4. 
  46. ^ ا ب Mark Aarons (2007). "International Humanitarian Law". In David A. Blumenthal؛ Timothy L. H. McCormack. Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide. The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance?. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. صفحہ 80. ISBN 978-9004156913. ضع ملخصا. 
  47. ^ ا ب KWOK، YENNI (2015-09-30). "The Memory of Savage Anticommunist Killings Still Haunts Indonesia, 50 Years On". Time. doi:ڈی او ئي. http://time.com/4055185/indonesia-anticommunist-massacre-holocaust-killings-1965. 
  48. ^ ا ب "Indonesia's killing fields". الجزیرہ. 2012-12-21. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 جنوری 2016. 
  49. ^ ا ب Gellately، Robert؛ Kiernan، Ben (جولائی 2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. صفحات 290–291. ISBN 978-0-521-52750-7. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 اکتوبر 2015. 
  50. Robinson، Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66. مطبع جامعہ پرنسٹن. صفحہ 3. ISBN 978-1-4008-8886-3. 
  51. Robinson، Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66. مطبع جامعہ پرنسٹن. صفحہ 4. ISBN 978-1-4008-8886-3. And while there is still no consensus on the matter, some scholars have described the Indonesian violence as genocide. 
  52. McGregor، Katharine؛ Melvin، Jess؛ Pohlman، Annie، ویکی نویس (2018). The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-71454-7. 
  53. Kwok، Yenni (20 جولائی 2016). "Indonesia's Mass Killings of 1965 Were Crimes Against Humanity, International Judges Say". ٹائم (رسالہ). اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 دسمبر 2018. The tribunal concludes that those acts were intended to annihilate a section of the population and could be categorized as genocide. 
  54. Bierstadt، Edward Hale (1924). The Great Betrayal; A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: RM McBride & Co. صفحہ 67. ISBN 0-89241-650-5. 
  55. Jones 2010، صفحہ 166، An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000; for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period. Most surviving Greeks were expelled to Greece as part of the tumultuous 'population exchanges' that set the seal on a heavily 'Turkified' state."[مکمل حوالہ درکار].
  56. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث
  57. Niko Javakhishvili (2012-12-20). "Coverage of The tragedy public Thought (later half of the 19th century)". Tbilisi State University. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 01 جون 2015. 
  58. Galina Yemelianova (اپریل 2014). Islam nationalism and state in the Muslim Caucasus. صفحہ 3. 
  59. Paul Goble (2005-07-15). "Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide". Radio Free Europe. 8 (23). Radio Liberty. 
  60. "Circassia: Adygs Ask European Parliament to Recognize Genocide". unpo.org. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 16 اپریل 2018. 
  61. ^ ا ب "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". نیو یارک ٹائمز. مئی 21, 2011. 
  62. Hildebrandt، Amber (2012-08-14). "Russia's Sochi Olympics awakens Circassian anger". CBC News. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اگست 2012. 
  63. "Georgia Recognizes 'Circassian Genocide'". Civil Georgia. 2011-05-20. 18 ستمبر 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 ستمبر 2012. 
  64. "Грузия признала геноцид черкесов в царской России // Сайт "Лента۔Ру"". lenta.ru (بزبان روسی). 2011-05-20. 
  65. "Russians won't admit expulsion of Circassians was genocide — but Ukrainians should". Euromaiden Press. 2016-05-21. 
  66. Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). ویکی نویس: Levine, Mark D؛ Penny Roberts. The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide. Massacres in History. صفحہ 154. The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million 
  67. "145th Anniversary of the Circassian Genocide and the Sochi Olympics Issue". Reuters. 22 مئی, 2009. جولائی 2, 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ نومبر 28, 2009. 
  68. Ellen Barry (20 مئی, 2011). "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". The New York Times. 
  69. Richmond، Walter. The Circassian Genocide. صفحہ 132. If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported. 
  70. ^ ا ب
  71. ^ ا ب
  72. The figurative demography of Algeria. Paris: Masson. 1880. 
  73. Kateb، Kamel (2001). Europeans Indigenes" and Jews in Algeria (1830–1962). Paris: Ined / Puf. 
  74. Bertrand Taithe (2010-12-15). "La famine de 1866–1868 : anatomie d'une catastrophe et construction médiatique d'un événement". Revue d'Histoire du Xixe Siècle. Société d'Histoire de la Révolution de 1848 et des Révolutions du Xixe Siècle (41): 113–127. doi:10.4000/rh19.4051. https://journals.openedition.org/rh19/4051. 
  75. Chrisafis، Angelique. "Turkey accuses France of genocide in Algeria". The Guardian. 
  76. "Turkey accuses France of genocide in colonial Algeria". BBC News. 
  77. Kiernan، Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. صفحہ 374. ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3. 
  78. Journet، Nicolas. "Pour en finir avec la repentance coloniale". Sciences Humaines. 
  79. "To put an end to colonial repentance". 
  80. Peyroulou، Jean-Pierre؛ Abderahman، Bouchène؛ Tengour، Ouanassa Siari؛ Thenault، Sylvie (2014). Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale, 1830–1962 [History of Algeria during the colonial period, from 1830 to 1962]. ISBN 9782707182319. 
  81. ^ ا ب Kiernan، Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. صفحات 364–365. ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3. 
  82. Rivoire، Jean-Baptiste (2011-12-08). The crime of Tibhirine: Revelations about those responsible. ISBN 9782707170729. 
  83. Colonize Exterminate. On War and the Colonial State. Paris, Fayard. 2005.  See also Benjamin Claude Brower. A Desert named Peace. The Violence of France's Empire in the Algerian Sahara, 1844–1902. New York: Columbia University Press. 
  84. "VII". Federal Constitution of Brazil. Article 231. 01 جنوری 2011 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 ستمبر 2020. 
  85. ^ ا ب "2008 Human Rights Report: Brazil". United States Department of State: Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 25 فروری 2009. 26 فروری 2009 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 مارچ 2011. 
  86. "Indigenous Lands – Introduction – About Lands". Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Instituo Socioambiental (ISA). 27 جنوری 2011 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 مارچ 2011. 
  87. Borges، Beto؛ Combrisson، Gilles. "Indigenous Rights in Brazil: Stagnation to Political Impasse". South and Meso American Indian Rights Center. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 مارچ 2011. 
  88. Schwartzman، Stephan; Valéria Araújo، Ana; Pankararú، Paulo (1996). "Brazil: The Legal Battle Over Indigenous Land Rights". NACLA Report on the Americas 29 (5): 36–43. doi:10.1080/10714839.1996.11725759. https://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95702149۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 24 مارچ 2011. 
  89. "Brazilian Indians 'win land case'". BBC News. 11 دسمبر 2008. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 مارچ 2011. 
  90. Rudolph Rummel estimates the following Indian deaths:سانچہ:Where
    • Under republic (1900–30): 50,000 democides
    • Under Vargas (1930–45): 60,000
    • Under Dutra/Vargas (1945–64): 50,000
    • Under military (1964–85): 75,000
    TOTAL: 235,000
  91. Robert Hitchcock؛ Tara Twedt (1997). ویکی نویس: Samuel Totten. Century of Genocide. ISBN 0-415-99085-8. Indian population of Brazil declined from 1.0M to 0.2M between 1900 and 1957, a net loss of 800,000 
  92. Ribeiro، Darcy (196). ویکی نویس: Janice Hopper. Indigenous Cultures and Languages in Brazil. in Indians of Brazil in the Twentieth Century. 87 Indian tribes in Brazil went extinct between 1900 and 1957 (Out of an original 230) 
  93. Lemkin، Raphael (2012). ویکی نویس: Jacobs، Steven Leonard. Lemkin on Genocide. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. صفحہ 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5. 
  94. Jonassohn، Kurt؛ Björnson، Karin Solveig (1998). Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. صفحہ 50. ISBN 978-1-4128-2445-3. 
  95. Tatz، Colin Martin؛ Higgins، Winton (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. ABC-CLIO. صفحہ 214. ISBN 978-1-4408-3161-4. 
  96. Robertson، John M. (1902). A Short History of Christianity. London, UK: Watts & Co. صفحہ 254. 
  97. Travis، Hannibal (دسمبر 2006). Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I. Genocide Studies and Prevention. 1. صفحات 327–371. 
  98. genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • O'Leary، Brendam؛ McGarry، John (24 نومبر 1995). ویکی نویس: Albert Breton. Regulating nations and ethnic communities. Cambridge University Press. صفحہ 248. ISBN 978-0-521-48098-7. Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!' 
    • Tim Pat Coogan (5 جنوری 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. صفحہ 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide. 
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (9 فروری 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6.  "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene 2005 "[The Act of Settlement of Ireland]، and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state."
  99. Daniel Chirot. Why Some Wars Become Genocidal and Others Don't (PDF). Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. اگست 17, 2008 میں اصل (PDF) سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  100. Robert Carrol؛ Stephen Prickett (1997). The Bible: Authorized King James Version with Apocrypha. Oxford University Press. صفحہ 337. ISBN 978-0-19-283525-3. 
  101. ^ ا ب Mícheál Ó Siochrú (2008-09-16). "Cromwell in Ireland Part 2". RTÉ ONE. 
  102. ^ ا ب Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998، صفحہ 278۔ Scott Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland.
  103. Li and Zheng 2003، صفحات 402.
  104. Li and Zheng 2003، صفحات 402[مکمل حوالہ درکار].
  105. Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between مارچ 1993 and جون 2003. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2010. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/CD/DRC_MAPPING_REPORT_FINAL_EN.pdf. 
  106. Ezimet، Kisangani (2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies (Cambridge University Press) 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. 
  107. ^ ا ب پ Reyntjens، Filip (2009). The Great African War : Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  108. F. Emizet، Kisangani N. (جولائی 2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. 
  109. ^ ا ب Adalian، Rouben Paul (2010)، Historical Dictionary of Armenia (اشاعت 2nd۔)، Lanham, MD: Scarecrow، صفحہ 154 ۔
  110. Akçam, Taner (2006) A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility p. 42, Metropolitan Books, New York آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8050-7932-6
  111. "Fifty Thousand Orphans made So by the 80,kish Massacres of Armenians"، نیو یارک ٹائمز، دسمبر 18, 1896، The number of Armenian children under twelve years of age made orphans by the massacres of 1895 is estimated by the missionaries at 50.000  Check date values in: |date= (معاونت)۔
  112. Akçam 2006، صفحہ 44.
  113. Angold، Michael (2006)، مدیر۔: O'Mahony، Anthony، Cambridge History of Christianity، 5. Eastern Christianity، Cambridge University Press، صفحہ 512، ISBN 978-0-521-81113-2 ۔
  114. Cleveland، William L. (2000). A History of the Modern Middle East (ایڈیشن 2nd). Boulder, CO: Westview. صفحہ 119. ISBN 0-8133-3489-6. 
  115. ^ ا ب
  116. Attema، P. A. J.؛ Bolhuis، E. (دسمبر 2010). Palaeohistoria 51/52 (2009/2010). ISBN 9789077922736. 
  117. Peck (1898)، Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities 
  118. جولیس سیزر، Commentarii de Bello Gallico 4.1-15
  119. Lee, K.H. "Caesar's Encounter with the Usipetes and the Tencteri." Greece & Rome 2nd vol. 2 (1969): 100-103.
  120. ^ ا ب "Julius Caesar battlefield unearthed in southern Netherlands". دی گارڈین. 11 دسمبر 2015. 
  121. ^ ا ب Kiernan، Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3. 
  122. ^ ا ب Kiernan، Ben (2004-08-01). "The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC" (en میں). Diogenes 51 (3): 27–39. doi:10.1177/0392192104043648. آئی ایس ایس این 0392-1921. https://semanticscholar.org/paper/cd2f91b9f91c690ed2adc5e071d8313e2ead8a6c. 
  123. Leavesley، Jordana (en میں). Melos and Carthage: Genocide in the Ancient World. doi:ڈی او ئي. https://www.academia.edu/31572631. 
  124. Rubinstein، William D. (2014-07-10). Genocide. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-86996-2. 
  125. Mann، Michael (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53854-1. 
  126. Carthage: The Roman Holocaust (TV Movie 2004)، اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2017-08-13 
  127. ^ ا ب "Atrocity statistics from the Roman Era". necrometrics.com. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 اگست 2017. 
  128. Niewyk، Donald L.؛ Nicosia، Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. صفحہ 47. ISBN 978-0-231-50590-1. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 5 جولائی 2016. 
  129. Ellman، Michael (جون 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies 59 (4): 663–693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. 
  130. Sebag Montefiore، Simon (2003). Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Vintage Books. صفحہ 229. ISBN 1-4000-7678-1. 
  131. Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2011-01-15). Nieopłakane ludobójstwo (Genocide Not Mourned). Rzeczpospolita. doi:ڈی او ئي. http://www.rp.pl/artykul/594183.html۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ اپریل 28, 2011. 
  132. Franciszek Tyszka. "Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków z lat 1937–38 to zbrodnia większa niż Katyń (Genocide of Poles in the years 1937–38, a Crime Greater than Katyn)". Super Express. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اپریل 28, 2011. 
  133. "Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (To Execute the Poles. Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)". Historyton. اکتوبر 3, 2011 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اپریل 28, 2011. 
  134. Andrzej Macura, Polska Agencja Prasowa (2010-06-24). "Publikacja na temat eksterminacji Polaków w ZSRR w latach 30 (Publication on the Subject of Extermination of Poles in the Soviet Union during the 1930s)". Portal Wiara.pl. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اپریل 28, 2011. 
  135. Prof Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (22 مارچ 2011). "Rozkaz N.K.W.D.: No. 00485 z dnia 11-VIII-1937, a Polacy". Polish Club Online. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اپریل 28, 2011. See also, Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)، article published by The Polish Review vol. LV, No. 4, 2010.  [مردہ ربط]
  136. "Sommer, Tomasz. Book description (Opis)" [Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union]. Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim w latach 1937–1938. Dokumenty z Centrali (بزبان پولش). Księgarnia Prawnicza, لوبلین. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 اپریل 2011. 
  137. "Konferencja "Rozstrzelać Polaków – Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim"" [Conference on Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, Warsaw] (بزبان پولش). Instytut Globalizacji oraz Press Club Polska in cooperation with Memorial Society. 03 مارچ 2016 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 اپریل 2011. 
  138. Goldman، Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. صفحہ 217. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. 
  139. Joshua Rubenstein. "The Devils' Playground". نیو یارک ٹائمز. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 اپریل 2011. Rubenstein is the Northeast regional director of Amnesty International USA and a co-editor of The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories. 
    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order No. 00486۔ The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
  140. Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited پی ڈی ایف file page 686
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  142. ^ ا ب Dunlop. Russia Confronts Chechnya. صفحات 62–70. 
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  145. "UNPO: Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944". unpo.org. 
  146. "Press-Release: فروری 23, World Chechnya Day". Save Chechnya Campaign. 27 فروری 2013 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 فروری 2013. 
  147. Wong, Tom K. (2015)۔ Rights, Deportation, and Detention in the Age of Immigration Control. Stanford University Press. p. 68. آئی ایس بی این 9780804794572۔ LCCN 2014038930. page 68
  148. Chanturiya، Kazbek (23 فروری 2017). "After 73 years, the memory of Stalin's deportation of Chechens and Ingush still haunts the survivors". OC Media. 27 نومبر 2019 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 نومبر 2019. 
  149. Wood، Tony. Chechnya: the Case for Independence. صفحات 37–38. 
  150. "Soviet Transit, Camp, and Deportation Death Rates". hawaii.edu. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 29 مئی 2019. 
  151. ^ ا ب پ ت https://combatgenocide.org/?page_id=91
  152. Williams 2012، صفحہ 192.
  153. Elhag 2014، صفحہ 210.
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  155. Reeves، Eric (2006-04-28). Quantifying Genocide in Darfur. doi:ڈی او ئي. 
  156. "Is Swedish neutrality over?". Pravda. 11 دسمبر 2012. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 اپریل 2019. 
  157. "Historic Debate Secures Parliamentary Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide". Huffingtonpost.co.uk. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 31 اگست 2013. 
  158. "South Korea recognizes Kurdish genocide". 13 جون 2013. 26 اپریل 2015 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 اپریل 2015. 
  159. "Genocide Against the Kurds in Iraq: Iraq and International Recognition Over Time". uk.gov.krd. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 مئی 2017. 
  160. ^ ا ب Rummel، Rudolph J. "Chapter 14 The Horde of Centi-kilo Murderers Estimates, Calculations, and Sources". Statistics of Democide. Rows 1313, 1314. 
  161. ^ ا ب Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
    https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB14.1C.GIF row 1313 and 1314
    1,000,000 and 10,000 to 2,000,000 and 100,000 Kurds were displaced and killed respectively between 1963 and 1987; 250,000 of them in 1977 and 1978. If deaths are proportional to the displacement then 2,500 to 12,500 Kurds would have died during this period depending on the scale of overall displacement and deaths used.
  162. Chestnut Greitens، Sheena (2016-08-16). Dictators and their Secret Police: Coercive Institutions and State Violence. صفحہ 289. ISBN 978-1-316-71256-6. 
  163. Jaffar Al-Faylee، Zaki (2010). Tareekh Al-Kurd Al-Faylyoon. Beirut. صفحات 485, 499–501. 
  164. Al-Hakeem، Dr. Sahib (2003). Untold stories of more than 4000 women raped killed and tortured in Iraq, the country of mass graves. صفحات 489–492. 
  165. "The Tragedy of the Missing Barzanis". Kurdistan Memory Programme. 19 نومبر 2019 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  166. Jones، Dave. "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein
    1983 The Missing Barzanis"
    . Frontline World. PBS.
     
  167. ^ ا ب GENOCIDE IN IRAQ Human Rights Watch, 1993
  168. "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign". PBS Frontline. جنوری 24, 2006. فروری 6, 2006 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ نومبر 15, 2019. 
  169. Zenko، Micah. "Remembering the Iraqi Uprising Twenty-Five Years Ago". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  170. ^ ا ب 1,000 deaths per day in اپریل, May and جون along Turkish border a - "Iraqi Deaths from the Gulf War as of اپریل 1992," Greenpeace, Washington, D.C. See also "Aftermath of War: The Persian Gulf War Refugee Crisis," Staff Report to the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, مئی 20, 1991. The figure of nearly 1,000 deaths per day is also given in "Kurdistan in the Time of Saddam Hussein," Staff Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, نومبر 1991, p.14. "hundreds" (100 to 900?) died per day along Iranian border b - Kurdish Refugees Straggle Into Iran, Followed By Tragedy، Associated Press, Apr 13, 1991 1,100 to 1,900 (a + b) deaths per day from at least اپریل 13th (b) up to between مئی 1st and مئی 31st (a ); which suggests 44 to 74 days: 1,100(44)= 48,400 1,900(74)= 140,600 Routine calculations Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
  171. Payaslian، Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies. 
  172. "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor". Yale.edu. 
  173. "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!" (PDF). 
  174. "Chega! The CAVR Report". 13 مئی, 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  175. Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000)۔ Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    *This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report" (PDF). 
    "The CAVR Report". 13 مئی 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  176. Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000)۔ Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". cavr-timorleste.org. مئی 13, 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اپریل 16, 2018. 
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  181. Totten، Samuel؛ Bartrop، Paul Robert (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. صفحہ 259. ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2. 
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  185. Stewart، C.C. (1986). "Islam" (PDF). The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 7: c. 1905 – c. 1940. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. صفحہ 196. 
  186. "Detailed description of some fights" (بزبان الإيطالية). Regioesercito. 
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  191. Penketh 2004.
  192. ^ ا ب پ "Between اکتوبر 2002 and جنوری 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board")۔ During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Raja Seshadri (7 نومبر 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. 4 مارچ 2016 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 جولائی 2012. 
  193. "Senate recognizes Volhynia massacre to be genocide". 
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  195. Paul Robert Magocsi (1996). A History of Ukraine. صفحہ 681. ISBN 0-8020-7820-6. 
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  201. Grzegorz Hryciuk؛ Wyd. Adam Marszałek (2005). Przemiany narodowościowe i ludnościowe w Galicji Wschodniej i na Wołyniu w latach 1931–1948 (بزبان پولش). Toruń. صفحہ 139. ISBN 83-7441-121-X. 
  202. Robert Potocki (2003). Polityka państwa polskiego wobec zagadnienia ukraińskiego w latach 1930–1939 [The policy of the Polish state towards the Ukrainian issue in 1930–1939]. صفحات 47–50. ISBN 83-917615-4-1. 
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  248. Totten، Samuel؛ Parsons، William S.؛ Charny، Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Psychology Press. صفحہ 331. ISBN 978-0-415-94430-4. 
  249. Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing. صفحہ 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 …  ۔
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  251. Edward H. Flannery (2004). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Paulist Press. صفحہ 158. ISBN 0-8091-4324-0. footnote 33, p. 327 
  252. Max I. Dimont (2004). Jews, God, and History. Signet Classic. صفحہ 247. ISBN 0-451-52940-5. 
  253. Martin Gilbert (1976). Jewish History Atlas. London. صفحہ 530. ISBN 3-11-013715-1. cited in Herbert Arthur Strauss. Hostages of modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism 1870–1933/39، Walter de Gruyter, 1993, p. 1013 
  254. Other 1960s–1980s estimates of Jews killed:
    • Hannah Vogt (1967). "The Jews: A Chronicle for Christian Conscience". Association Press. صفحہ 72. In 1648, under the leadership of Chmielnicki, they ravaged the land with fire and sword. Their hatred of the Jews was boundless and they rarely attempted to persuade the unfortunate to convert. These persecutions were characterized by hitherto-unknown atrocities. Children were torn apart or thrown into the fire before the eyes of their mothers, women were burned alive, men were skinned and mutilated. People must have thought hell had let loose all the tormenting monsters that medieval painters had portrayed dragging the condemned to eternal punishment. The roads were choked with thousands of refugees trying to escape the murderous hordes. The famous rabbis of the Talmud schools died by the hundreds as martyrs for their faith. The total number of the dead was estimated at about one hundred thousand. 
    • Richard L. Rubenstein (1974). Power Struggle: An Autobiographical Confession. Scribner. صفحہ 95. In their revolt, the Ukrainians slaughtered over one hundred thousand Jews. 
    • Chaim Bermant (1978). The Jews. Redwood Burn. صفحہ 12. ISBN 0-297-77419-0. Thus, when in 1648, the Ukrainians under Chmielnicki rose against Polish dominion the Jews were to bear the main brunt of their fury. Within eighteen months over three hundred Jewish townships were destroyed and over one hundred thousand Jews—about a fifth of Polish Jewry—perished. It was the greatest calamity the Jews were to experience until the rise of Hitler. 
    • David Bamberger (1978). My People: Abba Eban's History of the Jews. Behrman House. صفحات 184–185. ISBN 0-87441-263-3. Under the leadership of the barbaric Bogdan Chmielnitski, they exploded in a revolt of terrible violence in which their anger at their Polish lords also turned against Jewish 'infidels,' some of whom had been used by the Poles as tax collectors.۔. In the ten years between 1648 and 1658 no fewer than 100,000 Jews were killed 
    • Gertrude Hirschler (1988). Ashkenaz: The German Jewish Heritage. Yeshiva University Museum. صفحہ 64. … set off bloody massacres, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657)، in which nearly 300,000 Eastern European Jews were killed or uprooted 
  255. Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
    • "Judaism Timeline 1618–1770". CBS News. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 مئی 2007. Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule; 100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed. 
    • Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America. McFarland & Company. صفحات 98–99. ISBN 0-7864-1730-7. The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat Bogdan Chmielnicki. … It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed 
    • Manus I. Midlarsky (2005). The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press. صفحہ 352. ISBN 0-521-81545-2. Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki pogroms during the preceding century 
    • Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past. Columbia University Press. صفحہ 219. ISBN 0-231-10965-2. … as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage 
    • Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing. صفحہ 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 … 
    • Cara Camcastle (2005). The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy. McGill-Queen's Press. صفحہ 26. ISBN 0-7735-2976-4. In response to Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648 killed an estimated 100,000 Jews 
    • Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide. Verso. صفحہ 146. ISBN 1-85984-550-9. Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the process? 
    • Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield. صفحہ 193. ISBN 0-7425-4402-8. … massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier. 
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    anyone of African descent found incapable of pronouncing correctly, that is, to the complete satisfaction of the sadistic examiners, became a condemned individual. This holocaust is recorded as having a death toll reaching thirty thousand innocent souls, Haitians as well as Dominicans.
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