مرکزی مینیو کھولیں

یہ صفحہ قدیم فلسفے کے کچھ روابط کی فہرست ہے۔ مغربی فلسفے میں، رومی سلطنت میں مسیحیت کے پھیلاؤ نے ہیلینیائی فلسفے پر خاتمے کی مہر لگا دی اور فلسفہ قرون وسطی کا آغاز ہوا، جبکہ مشرقی فلسفے میں، اسلام کے پھیلاؤ نے قدیم ایرانی فلسفے کا خاتمہ کر دیا اور ابتدائی اسلامی فلسفے کا آغاز ہوا۔

تعارفترميم

خالص فلسفیانہ سوچ، خلقی انفرادی بصیرت پر منحصر ہے، اس کا آغاز بہت سی ثقافتوں میں تقریباً اتفاقی طور پر ہوا۔

فلسفیترميم

قدیم یونانی و رومی فلسفہترميم

 
Graphical relationship among the various pre-socratic philosophers and thinkers; red arrows indicate a relationship of opposition.
 
رافیل's School of Athens، depicting an array of ancient Greek philosophers engaged in discussion.

فلسفیترميم

ماقبل سقراطی فلسفیترميم

تھالیز (624 – c 546 قبل مسیح)
اناکسی میندر (610 – 546 قبل مسیح)
اناکسی مینس (c. 585 – c. 525 قبل مسیح)
فیثاغورث (582 – 496 قبل مسیح)
فلولاؤس (470 – 380 قبل مسیح)
Alcmaeon of Croton
آرکیٹاس (428 – 347 قبل مسیح)
Xenophanes (570 – 470 قبل مسیح)
بارامانیاس (510 – 440 قبل مسیح)
Zeno of Elea (490 – 430 قبل مسیح)
Melissus of Samos (c. 470 قبل مسیح – ?)
امپی دوکلیز (490 – 430 قبل مسیح)
اناکسا غورث (500 – 428 قبل مسیح)
Leucippus (first half of پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
دیموقراطیس (460 – 370 قبل مسیح)
Metrodorus of Chios (چوتھی صدی قبل مسیح)
پروتاغوراث (490 – 420 قبل مسیح)
Gorgias (487 – 376 قبل مسیح)
Antiphon (480 – 411 قبل مسیح)
Prodicus (465/450 – بعد از 399 قبل مسیح)
Hippias (وسط پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
Thrasymachus (459 – 400 قبل مسیح)
Callicles
Critias
Lycophron

قدیم یونانی فلسفیترميم

ہیلینیائی فلسفیترميم

ہیلینیائی مکتب فکرترميم

Early Roman and Christian philosophyترميم

مزید دیکھیے: Christian philosophy

Philosophers during Roman timesترميم

 
Plotinus

Ancient Indian philosophyترميم

The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions : Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition.

Vedic philosophyترميم

Indian philosophy begins with the وید where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous رگ وید Hymn of Creation (Nasadiya Sukta) the poet says:

 
ویاس، at وسط picture
"Whence all creation had its origin,
he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not,
he, who surveys it all from highest heaven,
he knows—or maybe even he does not know."

In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha)۔ This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma۔ Nature (prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva، rajas، and tamas

Sramana philosophyترميم

جین مت and بدھ مت are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic worldview of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक) (atheist) philosophy, also known as Lokāyata, it is a system of Hindu philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. It is named بعد از its founder, Cārvāka, author of the Bārhaspatya-sūtras.

Classical Indian philosophyترميم

In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. Some of the questions asked were:

  • What is the ontological nature of consciousness?
  • How is cognition itself experienced?
  • Is mind (chit) intentional or not?
  • Does cognition have its own structure?

The Six schools of ہندوستانی فلسفہ are:

Ancient Indian philosophersترميم

1st millennium قبل مسیحترميم

Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 قبل مسیح)ترميم

Philosophers of Axial Age (600–185 قبل مسیح)ترميم

 
Buddha.

Philosophers of Golden Age (184 قبل مسیح – 600 عیسوی)ترميم

Ancient Iranian philosophyترميم

 
Zarathustra as depicted in رافیل's The School of Athens beside Raphael who appears as the ancient painter Apelles of Kos۔

See also: ثنویت، Dualism (philosophy of mind)

While there are ancient relations between the Indian وید and the Iranian اوستا، the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe. The first charter of انسانی حقوق by کورش اعظم as understood in the اسطوانۂ کورش is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by زرطشت and developed in زرتشتیت schools of thought of the ہخامنشی سلطنت of تاریخ ایران۔[3][4]

Schools of thoughtترميم

Ideas and tenets of Zoroastrian schools of Early Persian philosophy are part of many works written in Middle Persian and of the extant scriptures of the zoroastrian religion in اوستائی زبان۔ Among these are treatises such as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar by Mardan-Farrux Ohrmazddadan, selections of Denkard، Wizidagīhā-ī Zātspram ("Selections of Zātspram") as well as older passages of the book Avesta, the Gathas which are attributed to Zarathustra himself and regarded as his "direct teachings"۔[5]

Zoroastrianismترميم

Anacharsis

Pre-Manichaean thoughtترميم

Manichaeismترميم

Mazdakismترميم

Zurvanismترميم

Philosophy and the Empireترميم

Literatureترميم

Ancient Jewish philosophyترميم

مزید دیکھیے: Jewish philosophy

First Temple (c. 900 قبل مسیح to 587 قبل مسیح)ترميم

Assyrian exile (587 قبل مسیح to 516 قبل مسیح)ترميم

Second Temple (516 قبل مسیح to 70 عیسوی)ترميم

  • ملاکی (پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
  • کتاب واعظ (پانچویں – 2nd صدی قبل مسیح)
  • Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira (2nd صدی قبل مسیح)
  • ہلل (c. 110 قبل مسیح – 10عیسوی)
  • فیلو (30 قبل مسیح – 45 عیسوی)

Early Roman exile (70 عیسوی to c. 600 عیسوی)ترميم

مزید دیکھیےترميم

حوالہ جاتترميم

  1. The significance of Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda
  2. P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai
  3. Philip G. Kreyenbroek: "Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  4. Mary Boyce: "The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  5. An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. From Zoroaster to 'Umar Khayyam. S. H. Nasr & M. Aminrazavi. I. B. Tauris Publishers, London & New York, 2008. ISBN 978-1845115418۔
  6. Zurvan. A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Robert Charles Zaehner. Biblo and Tannen, 1972. ISBN 0-8196-0280-9۔
  7. ^ ا ب Sasanian Iran – intellectual life. A. Tafazzoli and A. L. Khromov in: History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Crossroads of Civilization. B. A. Litvinsky, Zhang Guand-Da, R. Shabani Samghabadi. Unesco, 1996. ISBN 9231032119۔
  8. Mansour Shaki. Falsafa. Philosophy in the pre-Islamic period۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume IX. 1999. ISBN 0-933273-35-5۔
  9. Prods Oktor Skjaervo. Bardesanes۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume III. Fasc. 7–8. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4۔
  10. David A. Scott. Manichaean Views of Buddhism in: History of Religions. Vol. 25, No. 2, Nov. 1985. University of Chicago Press.
  11. Yarshater, Ehsan. 1983. The Cambridge history of Iran, volume 2. pp. 995–997

مزید پڑھیےترميم

  • Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn، in series, Bloomsbury Studies in Ancient Philosophy، Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2011. ISBN 978-0567353313

بیرونی روابطترميم