معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے ہسپانوی

حرف صحیح
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
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[[|b]][1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol ب بارے
[[|β]] bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva و (تقریباً) وجود
[[|d]][1] dedo; cuando; aldaba د دیر
[[|ð]] diva; arder; admirar عربی ذ دھاک (تقریباً)، ذات
[[|f]] fase; café ف فائدہ
[[|ɡ]][1] gato; lengua; guerra گ گاڑی
[[|ɣ]] trigo; amargo; sigue; signo غ غیر
[[|ʝ]][1][2] ayuno; poyo ی (تقریباً) یونان
[[|ɟʝ]][1][2] cónyuge; abyecto ج (تقریباً)
[[|k]] caña; laca; quise; kilo ک کیلو
[[|l]] lino; alhaja; principal ل لال
[[|ʎ]][1][2] llave; pollo
[[|m]][3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio م مادری
[[|ɱ]][3] anfibio م بامسی
[[|n]][3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum ن نیند
[[|ɲ]][3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar نیْـ (تقریباً) انسانیت
[[|ŋ]][3] cinco; venga; conquista ن٘گ رنگ
[[|p]] pozo; topo پ ٹوپی
[[|r]][4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; amor eterno عربی ر رب
[[|ɾ]][4] caro; bravo; amor eterno ر رستہ
[[|s]][5] saco; espita; xenón س سال
[[|θ]][5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz عربی ث ارتھ (تقریباً)، ثانية
[[|t]] tamiz; átomo ت تمیز
[[|tʃ]] chubasco; acechar چ چلو
[[|v]][6] afgano ڤ، انگریزی V افغانی (تقریباً)
[[|x]] jamón; general; México;[7] hamster[8] خ ختم
[[|z]][6] isla; mismo; deshuesar ز زیر
Marginal phonemes
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[[|ʃ]][9] show; Rocher; Freixenet ش شوک
[[|ts]] abertzale; Pátzcuaro تسْ امرتسر (شہر)


مصوت
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[[|a]] azahar ◌َ، اَ، ـا، آ اژدھا
[[|e]] vehemente ـیـ ، ے بین
[[|i]] dimitir; mío; y ◌ِ، اِ، ◌ِـی، اِی، ی تِیسرا
[[|o]] boscoso و، او بول
[[|u]] cucurucho; dúo ◌ُ، ◌ُـو، اُو، و دُود
 
Semivowels[10]
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[[|j]] aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad ی یاد
[[|w]][11] cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo وأ

(عربی و، انگریزی W)

ہوأ (تقریباً)
 
Stress and syllabification
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
[[|ˈ]] ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan


  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], like English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions unlike their English counterparts. When distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. ^ ا ب پ Most Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the صوتیہ nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. ^ ا ب The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. ^ ا ب Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ⟨s⟩ (/s/) and soft ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩ (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ⟨c⟩, ⟨z⟩ and even ⟨s⟩ as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. ^ ا ب [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (واخاکا, ٹیکساس).
  8. The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
  9. /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  10. The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  11. Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].

Referencesترميم

  • Martínez-Celdrán، Eugenio؛ Fernández-Planas، Ana Ma.؛ Carrera-Sabaté، Josefina (2003)، "Castilian Spanish"، Journal of the International Phonetic Association، 33 (2): 255–259 

External linksترميم