The charts below show the way in which the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents کینٹنی pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Cantonese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of کینٹنی. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent very approximate sounds to the original pronunciations.

معاونت:با ابجدیہ Yale Jyutping Chinese English approximation
Non-syllabic حرف صحیحs
[[|f]] f fan
[[|h]] h house
[[|j]] y j you
[[|k]] syllable-initial g scan
syllable-final k doctor
[[|kʰ]] syllable-initial k can
[[|kʷ]] gw[1] squeak
kʷʰ kw[2] quick
[[|l]] l leaf
[[|m]] m moon
[[|n]] n noon
[[|ŋ]] ng singing
[[|p]] b span
syllable-final p apt
[[|pʰ]] syllable-initial p pan
[[|s]] s 西 saw
[[|t]] d stand
syllable-final t Atkins
[[|tʰ]] syllable-initial t tan
[[|ts]] j z cats
[[|tsʰ]] ch c cats hissing
[[|w]] w water
Syllabic consonants
[[|m̩]] m rhythm
[[|ŋ̩]]
ŋ̍
ng[3] (syllabic ng)

All non-syllabic consonants except [p̚, t̚, k̚] may begin a
syllable, though some speakers do not have initial [n, ŋ].[4]
The six non-syllabic consonants [p̚, t̚, k̚, m, n, ŋ] may end a syllable.[5]

معاونت:با ابجدیہ Yale Jyutping Chinese English approximation
مصوتs
[[|aː]] aa,
syllable-final a
aa father (Australian English)
aːi aai time
aːu aau how
[[|ɐ]] non-syllable-final a a cut
ɐi ai kite (short)
ɐu au house (short)
ei ei hey
[[|ɛː]] e yes
ɛːu eu [6] roughly like yeah well
[[|e]] i before k or ng sick
[[|iː]] i see
iːu iu roughly like few
ou ou hoe (American English)
[[|ɔː]] o law
ɔːy oi roughly like boy; Häuser in German
[[|œː]] eu before k or ng
or syllable-finally
oe roughly like fur in British English; fleuve in French
[[|ɵ]] eu before n or t eo roughly like again but rounded
ɵy eui eoi No English equivalent; like Japanese koi but rounded even at the end
[[|o]] u before k or ng look
[[|uː]] u food
uːy ui roughly like phooey; almost like nouille in French
[[|yː]] non-syllable-initial yu[7] yu No English equivalent; menu in French
IPA Yale Jyutping Chinese Description
Tones
síː si1[8] high level: siː˥˥
sîː high falling: siː˥˧
sǐː si2 mid rising: siː˧˥
sīː si si3 mid level: siː˧˧
si̭ː
sȉː
sìh si4 low falling: siː˨˩
or very low: siː˩˩
si̬ː síh si5 low rising: siː˨˧
sìː sih si6 low level: siː˨˨
píːt̚ bīt bit1 high checked: piːt̚˥
sīːt̚ sit sit3 mid checked: siːt̚˧
sìːt̚ siht sit6 low checked: siːt̚˨

حواشیترميم

  1. [kʷ] is often merged with [[[|k]]] before [[[|ɔː]]] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  2. [kʷʰ] is often merged with [] before [[[|ɔː]]] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  3. Some speakers replace [ŋ̩] by [m̩].
  4. Non-syllabic initial [ŋ] is not pronounced in Hong Kong Cantonese by younger speakers, leaving a glottal stop [ʔ] before a, e, o, and initial [n] may be replaced by [l].
  5. Non-syllabic final [ŋ] may be replaced by [n] in Hong Kong Cantonese, except after [e, o]. [i, u] in diphthongs are equivalent to a final /j, w/. After rounded vowels, an i becomes [y].
  6. [ɛːu] is pronounced only in colloquial speech.
  7. Syllable-initial yu is [jo] before k or ng, and [jyː] otherwise.
  8. The high level and high falling tones have merged to high level in Hong Kong Cantonese for most words.

Bibliographyترميم

  • Zee، Eric (1999)، "Chinese (Hong Kong Cantonese)"، Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet، Cambridge: Cambridge University Press، ISBN 0-521-65236-7