معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے نارویجن

حرف صحیحs
IPA Examples قریبی اردو مثال
b bil بیٹا
ç kjip
d dag ادارہ (فارسی تلفظ)
ɖ sardin[1] ڈبہ
f fot فائدہ
ɡ god گیند
h hatt ہاتھ
j jojo یاد
k kafé کالی
l lake لال
ɭ Karl[1] پنجابی گن٘جھࣇدار
m man مالی
n natt نہیں
ɳ barn[1] ٹھنڈا
ŋ ting رنگ
p pappa پاپا
r år[2][1] زرّہ
s sabel صبر
ʂ sjø, torsdag[1] شائد (تقریباً)
t tirsdag توت (فارسی تلفظ)
ʈ parti[1] ٹاپو
v vaktel وقت (تقریباً)
مصوتs
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ɑ fast Modern RP stack; North American lot
ɑː mat bra, RP car
æ fersk[3] trap
æː ære[3] Australian ham
ɛ helle[3] North American and RP set
hel[3] Scottish save
ɪ sill hill
i need
ɔ åtte RP lot; North American fort
mål Scottish stove; RP law
œ nøtt similar to Burt; German short ö
øː dø similar to bird; German long ö
ʊ ond put, with tight lips
bot[4] fool
ʉ full Estuary butcher
ʉː ful[4] fuel; Australian and Estuary food, with tight lips
ʏ nytt[4] No English equivalent; German short ü
syl[4] No English equivalent; German long ü
unstressed
ə påle about
Stress and لہجے والی زبان
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈa Rana
[ˈrɑːnɑ]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Low tone in اوسلو: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
ˈa.ˈa rana
[ˈrɑːˈnɑ]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]

Notesترميم

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
  4. ^ ا ب پ ت Vowels spelt u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.

Referencesترميم

  • Kristoffersen، Gjert (2000)، The Phonology of Norwegian، Oxford University Press، ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • سانچہ:SOWL
  • Skaug، Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996]، Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (اشاعت 3rd۔)، Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS، ISBN 82-456-0178-0 
  • Strandskogen، Åse-Berit (1979)، Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger، Oslo: Gyldendal، ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Vanvik، Arne (1979)، Norsk fonetikk، Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo، ISBN 82-990584-0-6