معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/تائیوانی ہاکیئن

The charts below show the way in which the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents تائیوانی ہاکیئن (also called Taiwanese) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See تائیوانی ہاکیئن for more detail on the sounds of the language.

Note that English equivalents given in this page may represent only loose approximations to the original. In addition, the Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) applied in this page is Ernest Tipson's version, while Chinese Examples are pronounced with literal reading with Taiwanese Romanization System (TL) spelling in default unless specified.

Consonantsترميم

حرف صحیحs
معاونت:با ابجدیہ POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
p p 布 (pòo) span
ph 普 (phóo) pan
b b   明 (bîng) above [ا]
m m- 媽 (má) moon
am, om, im  ,   暗 (àm), 參 (som)[ب], 心 (sim) rim
t t 端 (tuan) stop
th 透 (thò) top
l l 來 (lâi) lime [پ]
n n 泥 (nî) noon
-n ㄣ, ㄢ 因 (in), 安 (an)
k k 見 (kiàn) skin
kh 溪 (khe) kin
g g   義 (gī) again [ا]
ŋ ng-   吳 (ngôo) singer
eng, ang, ong ing, ang, ong ㄥ, ㄤ,   櫻 (ing), 幫 (pang), 王 (ông) song
h h 曉 (hiáu) hit
ʔ 影 (íng, [ʔiə̯ŋ˥˩]) uh-oh
t͡s ch [ت] ts 走 (tsáu) roughly like seats [ت]
t͡ɕ 精 (tsing) like itchy, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ٹ]
t͡sʰ chh [ت] tsh 菜 (tshài) tsunami (English pronunciation)
t͡ɕʰ 市 (tshī) like cheap, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ٹ]
s s 三 (sam) same
ɕ 審 (sím) like sheep, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ٹ]
d͡z j   熱 (jua̍h) pads [ث]
z zoo [ج]
d͡ʑ   日 (ji̍t) like jeep, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ث][ٹ]
ʑ like zip, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ج][ٹ]
Note: Alveolo-palatal consonants ([t͡ɕ], [t͡ɕʰ], [ɕ], and [d͡ʑ / ʑ]) always precede [i] ⟨i / e⟩ as ⟨chi (tsi) / che⟩, ⟨chhi (tshi) / chhe⟩, ⟨si / se⟩, and ⟨ji⟩.
Syllabic consonants
-m   姆 (ḿ) rhythm
ŋ̍ -ng   光 (kng)[چ] song [ح]
Stop consonant finals
-p 合 (ha̍p) like sip, but no audible release
-t 七 (tshit) like sit, but no audible release
-k 角 (kak) like sick, but no audible release
ʔ -h 桌 (toh) uh-oh

Vowelsترميم

مصوتs
معاونت:با ابجدیہ POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
a a 鴨 (ah) California: hat
e e   家 (ke) enPR: day
ə o o/or[خ] 高 (kor) about [د]
o o 高 (ko) snow [ڈ]
ɔ [ذ] oo   烏 (oo) thought
ong, om,
op, ok
 ,  ,
 ,  
福 (hok)
i i [ر​] 一 (it) see [ڑ​]
u u 武 (bú) shoe [ز]
Diphthongs
ai̯ ai 愛 (ài) fight [ڑ​]
au̯ au 交 (kau) out [ز]
i̯a ia ㄧㄚ 射 (s) Russia
i̯ɛ ian, iat ㄧㄢ, ㄧㄚ 電 (tn), 結 (kiat) yes [ژ]
iə̯ eng, ek ing, ik ㄧㄥ, ㄧ 英 (ing), 色 (sik) eon [س][د]
i̯ə io ior ㄧㄜ 腰 (ior)[د]
i̯o io ㄧㄛ 腰 (io)[ڈ] Leo
i̯ɔ iong, iok  , ㄧ  中 (tiong), 欲 (io̍k) kiosk
i̯u iu ㄧㄨ 手 (tsh) dew
u̯a oa ua ㄨㄚ 化 (h) like quality
u̯e oe ue   尾 (b)[ب] question
u̯i ui ㄨㄧ 水 (súi) we
Triphthongs
i̯au̯ iau ㄧㄠ 妖 (iau) meow [ڑ​][ز]
u̯ai̯ oai uai ㄨㄞ 怪 (kuài) quiet [ڑ​]
Nasal vowels
◌̃ m, n, ng , ㄋ,   毛 (môo), 貓 (niau), 雅 (ngá) Nasalized vowel(s) [ش]
ã an ann   衫 (sann) like naive; nasalized [a]
en enn   青 (tsenn)[ب] like next; nasalized [e] [ص]
ĩ in inn   [ر​] 圓 (înn) like niece; nasalized [i]
ɔ̃ on onn   否 (hónn) French: son; nasalized [ɔ]
ãĩ̯ ain ainn   載 (tsáinn) like nine; nasalized [ai̯]
ĩ̯ã ian iann   兄 (hiann) roughly like civilian; nasalized [i̯a]
ĩ̯ũ iun iunn   羊 (iûnn)[چ] like nuance; nasalized [i̯u] [ض]
ũ̯ã oan uann   官 (kuann) roughly like wander nasalized [u̯a]
ũ̯ĩ uin uinn   快 (khuìnn)[چ] roughly like twin; nasalized [u̯i]
ĩ̯ãũ̯ iaun iaunn   喓 (iaunn) like meow; nasalized [i̯au̯]
ũ̯ãĩ̯ oain uainn   關 (kuainn)[ب] roughly like wine; nasalized [u̯ai̯] [ط]
Note: ⟨◌n⟩ in POJ is sometimes written as ⟨◌N⟩ when superscript ⟨n⟩ is not supported.

Tonesترميم

Tones
Tone
Number
معاونت:با ابجدیہ POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example Tone number
کائوسیونگ شہر تائپے Lukang
0 ◌--a (āu--ji̍t) (varying)
1 ˦˦ a 55 44 33
2 ˥˩ á ˋ 51 53 55
3 ˧˩ à ˪ 31 21 31
4 ˧˨ʔ a◌ 3ʔ 2ʔ 5ʔ
5 ˨˦ â ˊ 24
6 ˨˨ ǎ ˋ 22
7 ˧˧ ā ˫ 33 31
8 ˦ʔ a̍◌ ◌˙ 5ʔ 4ʔ 35ʔ
9 ˧˥ 35
Note: ◌ can be any of the four stop consonant finals in Taiwanese as listed in the above.

Dialectal segmentsترميم

Choân-chiu Dialectترميم

حرف صحیحs
معاونت:با ابجدیہ POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
d͡ʑ j j   字 (jī / lī) like jeep, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ث]
l l lap
熱 (jua̍h / lua̍h)
d͡z j   pads [ث]
مصوتs
ɘ e er 火 (hér)[ظ] New Zealand: bit [ع]
ɨ i / u ir   豬 (tir) roughly like glasses; sometimes pronounced as [ɯ] as goose (California)[غ][ظ]
ɘ̯e oe ere   雞 (kere)[غ]
ɘ̯u io eru ㄜㄨ 購 (kerù)[ظ]
ɨ̯̃ĩ eng irinn    肩 (kirinn)[ف]

Chiang-chiu Dialectترميم

حرف صحیحs
معاونت:با ابجدیہ POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
ȵ n gn   耳 (gní)[ق] like onion [ص][ک]
ʑ j j   日 (ji̍t / gi̍t) like zip, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (لثوی-حنکی حروف صحیح).[ج]
g g   give [ج]
z j   熱 (jua̍h) zoo [ج]
مصوتs
ɛ e ee / ek / eng 家 (kee) [ق] bet [ص]
ɛ̃ en eenn   青 (tsheenn) [ق] French: vin; nasalized [ɛ] [ص][ک]
ĩ̯ɔ̃ iun ionn   羊 (iônn) [گ] like neon; nasalized [i̯o] [ص]

حواشیترميم

  1. ^ ا ب [b] and [g] are sometimes transcribed as [] and [] respectively.
  2. ^ ا ب پ ت In Taiwanese ژانگژو accent.
  3. [l] is pronounced as [ɾ] or [d] in some sub-accents; some scholars transcribe [l] as [ᵈl] to distinguish from the minor difference with [l].
  4. ^ ا ب پ In some POJ variants, ch and chh are written as ⟨ts⟩ and ⟨tsh⟩ respectively.
  5. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ [t͡ɕ], [t͡ɕʰ], [ɕ], and [ʑ] are pronounced as [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s], and [z] in some accents.
  6. ^ ا ب پ ت [d͡z] and [d͡ʑ] are used in Taiwanese چوانژو accent; they are pronounced as [l] in some sub-accents.
  7. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ [z] and [ʑ] is used in Taiwanese ژانگژو accent, while [ʑ] is pronounced as [g] mainly in Taiwanese Hok-Ló-Kheh [zh] sub-accents.
  8. ^ ا ب پ In Taiwanese چوانژو accent.
  9. ⟨-ng⟩ [ŋ̍] is pronounced as [ũĩ] mainly in Taiwanese ژانگژو accent.
  10. ⟨o⟩ in TL can present both southern accent and northern accent, while ⟨or⟩ in TL is used to specify southern accent for differentiation.
  11. ^ ا ب پ ⟨or⟩ [ə] is used in Taiwanese southern accent and sometimes transcribed as [ɤ].
  12. ^ ا ب ⟨o⟩ [o] is used in Taiwanese northern accent.
  13. ⟨o͘⟩ [ɔ] is sometimes written as ⟨ou⟩ in POJ as the dot is barely visible for readers.
  14. ^ ا ب In horizontal writing, it might be written in 90 degrees rotated.
  15. ^ ا ب پ ت [] can be transcribed as [ɪ] in ⟨-ai, -ia, -io, -iau⟩.
  16. ^ ا ب پ [] can be transcribed as [ʊ] in ⟨-au
  17. ⟨ian⟩ is pronounced as either [i̯ɛn], [ɛn], or [en] depending on accents.
    ⟨iat⟩ is pronounced as either [i̯ɛt̚], [ɛt̚], or [et̚] depending on accents.
  18. ⟨ing⟩ is pronounced as either [iə̯ŋ], [] or [], depending on accents.
    ⟨ik⟩ is pronounced as either [iə̯k̚], [ik̚] or [ek̚] depending on accents.
  19. The combination of a nasal consonant preceding vowel(s) represents nasal vowel(s) due to a natural process of assimilation.
  20. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ⟨gn⟩ [ȵ], (enn) [], ⟨ee⟩ [ɛ], ⟨eeh⟩ [ɛʔ], ⟨eenn⟩ [ɛ̃], ⟨ek⟩ [ɛk̚], ⟨eng⟩ [ɛŋ], ⟨ionn⟩ [ĩ̯ɔ̃], and ⟨ionnh⟩ [ĩ̯ɔ̃ʔ] of TL are used in Taiwanese ژانگژو accent.
  21. [ĩ̯ũ] is only used in چوانژو accent.
  22. [ũ̯ãĩ̯] is pronounced as [ũ̯ĩ], [ũ̯ã], and [u̯ai̯] mainly in Taiwanese چوانژو accent.
  23. ^ ا ب پ In Lo̍k-káng چوانژو accent
  24. ⟨er⟩ [ɘ] is also transcribed as [ə] by some scholars despite of the slight difference. In addition, ⟨er⟩ is alternatively spelled as ⟨oe⟩ while its Phonetic Symbol is replaced with   in textbooks and academic publishing by Ngoo Siu Le [zh].
  25. ^ ا ب In Sam-Kiap چوانژو accent
  26. In Po-tiong چوانژو نانآن، فوجیان accent
  27. ^ ا ب پ In Taiwanese Éng-tsēng ژانگژو accent.
  28. ^ ا ب Note that ⟨gn⟩ [ȵ] and ⟨eenn⟩ [ɛ̃] are not listed in the Taiwanese Romanization System by Ministry of Education, but is featured in textbooks and dictionaries.
  29. In Taiwanese تاینان ژانگژو accent.

== حوالہ جات ==* "Tai-Hoa Dictionary". Peh-oe-ji Tai-gu-bun Bang-cham - Written Taiwanese Southern-Min. * "Dictionary for Common Vocabulary in Taiwanese Hokkien". Ministry of Education (Taiwan). * "Taiwanese Hokkien Romanization and Pronunciation Learning Network". National Taichung University of Education.